NATIONAL NICKNAMES, the collec tive names of a people or nation. usually orig inating with the people themselves. John Bull was first given to the people of Great Britain by John Arbuthnot in his 'Law is a Bottom less Pit' He also gave the names Nicholas Frog to the Dutch and Jean Crapaud (toad) to the French people. John Chinaman is a popular name for the Chinese; Taffy for the Welsh; Jean Baptiste and Canuck for the French Canadians, and Ivan Ivanivitch for the Rus sians; Paddy for the Irishman; Jacques Bon homme for the French peasant; Sawney for the Scotch, and Blackamoor and Sambo for the negro in America.
In the United States the two popular na tional names are Brother Jonathan and Uncle Sam. The former was first used. General Washington, on assuming command of the New England Revolutionary forces, was in great straits for arms and war material. The gover nor of Connecticut, Jonathan Trumbull, was a man of excellent judgment and an esteemed friend of Washington. In the emergency,
Washington said, °We must consult Brother Jonathan.' This expression was repeated on other difficult occasions and became a conven ient name for the whole people. The name Uncle Sam is an extension of the letters U. S. (United States), printed or stamped on the government property. It was first used in Troy, N. Y. in 1812, when certain goods pur chased for Y., government and branded U. S. were officially inspected by Samuel Wilson, whose nickname was °Uncle Sam.' The coin cidence of initials suggested the application of this nickname to the government. In the World War, the names given to the soldiers of the various countries were English, Tom mies; American, Sammies; German, Boches or Fritz; French, Poilus.