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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 19

Natchez
Natchez, Nach'ez, Miss., City, County Seat Of Adams County, On The Mississippi River, And On The Yazoo And Mississippi Valley, The Mississippi Central, The Natchez And Southern And The Saint Louis, Iron Mountain And South Ern And Louisiana And Arkansas Railroads, 297 Miles By Rail And 470 Miles By River ...

Nathan
Nathan, Hebrew Prophet In The Time Of David And Solomon. He Was In His Day The Latest Direct Descendant And Representative Of The School Of The Prophets Under Samuel. Saint Jerome Mentions A Jewish Tradition Which Iden Tifies Him With The Eighth Son Of Jesse, But There Is No Ground ...

Nathan The Wise
Nathan The Wise. Lessing's Imme Diate Occasion For Writing Der Weise' ("nathan The Wise) (17n) Was The Necessity Of Finding A Form, To Which The Censor Could Take No Exception, For Final Utterance Of Some Sentiments On The Subject Of Personal Religion Which He Had Very Much At Heart. During ...

National Association Of Cor
National Association Of Cor Poration Schools, The. In 1911 The New York Edison Company Established A Com Mercial School To Correct Faulty Fundamentals Of Employees Of That Company; To Train Em Ployees In The Duties They Were Then Perform Ing, And For More Advanced Work. As The Movement Progressed There ...

National Association Of Man
National Association Of Man Ufacturers, The. A Convention, Con Sisting Of Several Hundred Representative Amer Ican Manufacturers, Met In Cincinnati, Ohio, 22 Jan. 1895, And Provided For The Organization Of A National Association Of Manufacturers. At The First Annual Convention Of The Associa Tion Held In Chicago 21 Jan. 1896, ...

National Board Of Health
National Board Of Health, The, A Federal Body, Instituted By Act Of Con Gress, 3 March 1879, To Consist Of 11 Members — One Army Surgeon, One Navy Surgeon, One Medi Cal Officer Of The Marine Hospital Service, One Officer Of The Department Of Justice And Seven Physicians From Civil ...

National City Bank Of
National City Bank Of New York, The, Chartered 16 June 1812, Under "an Act To Incorporate The Stockholders Of The City Bank Of New York," Was Directly Related To The Dissolution Of The First Bank Of The United States, The Charter Of Which, Dated 1791, Had Expired In 1811, And ...

National Civic Federation
National Civic Federation, The, An American Organization, Founded 16 Dec. 1901, The Outgrowth Of A Number Of Local Con Ventions Representing Capital And Labor. Its Purpose Is To Seek, By An Organization Of The Best Thought In The Country, A Solution Of Indus Trial Problems; To Assist In The Enlightening ...

National Debts Of The
National Debts Of The World. Debt Incurred By The Nations Has Developed With Startling Rapidity In Recent Years. National Debts In The Year 1700 Were, As Nearly As Can He Determined, About $1,000,000,000, And In 1800 Approximately $5,000,000,000. By 1900 They Had Grown To $31,000,000,000. At The Beginning Of The ...

National Education Associa Tion
National Education Associa Tion, Since 1870 The Name Adopted For The National Teachers' Association Founded At Philadelphia, Pa., In 1857, An Organization Com Posed Of Teachers And Other Persons Interested In Education. Its Purpose Is The Discussion Of Topics Relating To The Education Of The Whole People, To The End ...

National Gallery
National Gallery, The, The Brit Ish National Art Gallery; A Collection Of Paint Ings, In Trafalgar Square, London. It Orig Inated In A Collection Formed By Mr. Anger Stein, Consisting Of 38 Pictures, 29 By Old Masters And 9 By British Painters, And Purchased With Public Funds In 1824 For ...

National Ideals In The
National Ideals In The War. In The Strain Of The Great War The National Ideals Of All The Peoples Were Severely Tested. Articles Of Political Faith Previously Accepted Without Much Question Were Challenged To De Fend Themselves In The Face Of A New Criticism And Of Directly Antagonistic Ideals. And ...

National Library Biblio Theque
National Library (biblio Theque Nationale) Of France, One Of The World's Most Famous Libraries. Some Of Its Historians Find Its Origin In The Books Of Charlemagne And Charles The Bald But This Is Doubtless Mere Legend. Saint Louis Is Said To Have Formed A Collection In The 13th Century, But ...

National Nicknames
National Nicknames, The Collec Tive Names Of A People Or Nation. Usually Orig Inating With The People Themselves. John Bull Was First Given To The People Of Great Britain By John Arbuthnot In His 'law Is A Bottom Less Pit' He Also Gave The Names Nicholas Frog To The Dutch ...

National Parks And Monu
National Parks And Monu Ments. The Former Are Large Tracts Of Pub Lic Lands In The Central And Western Parts Of The United States Retained, Maintained And Im Proved By The Federal Government For Such Purposes As Are Mentioned In The National Parks Service Bill, Creating In The Department Of ...

National Society Of The
National Society Of The Sons And Daughters Of The Pilgrims, The. Organized At Providence, R I., Monday, 21 Dec. 1908, By 10 Gentlemen, Most Of Whom Were Of Mayflower Ancestry. The Plan And Purposes Of The Society Originated With Thomas W. Bicknell Of Rhode Island, Who Had, For A Year, ...

National University
National University. History.— The Proposition To Establish A National Uni Versity Was First Made By George Washington. He Discussed Such A University In His First Presidential Message To Congress And From His Private Fortune Bequeathed $25,000 To The Na Tion As A Basal Sum Around Which A National University Might ...

Nationalism
Nationalism, The Historical Devel Opment Of. No Concepts In History, Politics Or Sociology Are To-day More Important Or Evident, And, Yet, At The Same Time, More Difficult To Define Than The Terms Nationality And Nation. To The Writer It Seems That A Nation Is A Culturally Homo Geneous Social Group, ...

Nationality
Nationality. Nationality Is Both An Ethnic And A Legal Term. As An Ethnological Concept It Has Reference To The Racial Status Of An Individual Or Group. Thus We Speak Of An Individual Possessing German, Polish, Italian Or Greek Nationality, Without Regard To His Citi Zenship, For The Terms Citizenship And ...

Nativism
Nativism, That Theory Which Bases Some Tangible Part Or Phase Of Our Knowledge On The Inborn Nature Of Mind And Not On Sense-experi Ence Alone. It Is Opposed To Empiricism (q.v.), Which Finds In Sense-experience The Origin Of All Knowledge. While The Distinction Between Truths Of Reason And Truths Of ...

Natural
Natural Point-blanc.— The Point At Which The Line Of Sight Intersects The Trajectory The Sec Md Time; Or, More Practically Speaking, It Is That Point Which, Being Aimed At, Is Struck By The Projectile. Nmitt Assault.— An Assault Undertaken In Order To Gain A Point Of Support For Further Operations ...

Natural Bridge
Natural Bridge And Natural Arch. A Natural Bridge Has Been Defined As A "natural Stone Arch That Spans A Valley Of Erosion. A Natural Arch Is A Similar Structure Which Does Not Span A (true) Erosion Valley." These Forms Are Produced In Numerous Ways. Most Of Our Larger Natural Bridges ...

Natural Selection
Natural Selection, The Doctrine Advanced By Charles Darwin And Almost Coincidentally By Alfred Russel Wallace (q.v.), To Account For The Divergence Of Animal Forms And Their Gradual Separation Into Distinct Species And Groups, By A Process Akin To The Selective Mating Practised By Men In Rearing And Perpetu Ating Breeds ...

Naturalism
Naturalism, A Term Which, In The His Tory Of Philosophical Thought, Has Received A Variety Of Meanings. In General It. Refers To That Which Is In Accordance With Nature. But The Sense In Which The Term Nature May Be Used Is Not By Any Means A Constant But A Variable, ...

Naturalization
Naturalization, The Act Of Renounc Ing Allegiance To One Government And Acquiring The Rights Of Citizenship Under Another. In Its Broadest Sense It Signifies The Act Of Adopting A Foreigner Into The Body Politic And Of Clothing Him With The Privileges Of Citizenship. This May Result From The Annexation Of ...

Naturalization Laws
Naturalization Laws, Acts Placing Foreign-born Persons In The Same Legal Position As Natural-born Citizens. The Conditions Under And The Manner In Which An Alien May Be Ad Mitted To Become A Citizen Of The United States Are Prescribed By The United States Revised Statutes. Declaration Of The Alien Must Declare ...

Nature Study
Nature Study, An Educational Means Of Training The Mind Of The Pupil, By Direct Ob Servation, To A Knowledge And Love Of The Com Mon Things About Him. Nature Study Attempts To Aid, In The Most Effective Way, Through The Natural And Inherent Instincts Of All Children, The Perfect Development ...

Nature Worship
Nature Worship. The Worship Of The Heavens, The Planets, The Elements, The Mani Festation Of All Forms Of Life, Vegetable And Ani Mal, Including The Personified Life Attributed To Inanimate Objects. Nature Worship, Though Probably Everywhere Occasioned By The Natural Impulse Of Man To Fear The Terrific Manifesta Tions Of ...

Nautical Training Schools
Nautical Training Schools. Schools For Training Young Men In The Science Of Navigation, In The Study Of Marine Engineer Ing In All Its Various Branches, In Practical Sea Manship — In All The Necessary Matters Pertain Ing To The Operation Of Vessels At Sea, Have Long Been Established Both In ...

Nautilus
Nautilus, A Marine Cephalopod Of The Genus Nautilus And Family A Few Living Species Of Which Are The Only Survivors Of The Order Or Superorder Tetrabranchiota, Which Including Both The Nautiloid Forms And The Ammonites (q.v.) Is Divided Into No Less Than 22 Extinct Families, So Abundant Were They In ...

Navajo Indians
Navajo Indians. An Important Tribe Of The Athapascan Stock Of Indians, Now On A Reservation Of About 9,503,763 Acres In North Eastern Arizona, Northwestern New Mexico And Southeastern Utah. At An Average Elevation Of 6,000 Feet Above Sea-level. According To Fray Alonso Benavides (1630), The Word *navajo" Means Grandes," 'great ...

Naval Academy
Naval Academy, United States, The Most Important Naval School In America, Es Tablished At Annapolis, Md., In 1845, By A Special Act Of The Congress. The Origin Of This Tech Nical Educational Institution Was Due Primarily To The Efforts Of George Bancroft, Secretary Of The Navy. The Academy Was Opened ...

Naval Aeronautics
Naval Aeronautics. The Import Ance Of The Aeroplane In Naval Warfare Is Great And Varied. It Is Most Useful In Scouting, In Locating And Bombing Enemy Ships And Sub Marines And In Spotting Gunfire (observation Of The Fall Of The Shots). A Squadron Of Battle Cruisers With Guns Of Large ...

Naval Architecture
Naval Architecture Deals With The Designing And Development Of The Nautical Qualities Of Ships As Distinguished From Their Construction, Which Belongs To Shipbuildng. The Existence Of Naval Architecture As An Art Prob Ably Dates Back To The First Development Of Man, But Its Elevation Into A Science Can Scarcely Be ...

Naval Auxiliary Vessels
Naval Auxiliary Vessels. When The United States Became An Active Participant In The European War It Became At Once Necessary To Provide For Meeting The Demands For Vessels For Various Naval Auxiliary Uses: Congress, In Anticipation Of The Situation Which Did Arise When The United States Became A Belligerent, Included ...

Naval Education
Naval Education. Thorough Edu Cative And Systematic Study Constitute The Base Rock Foundation In The Grasping Of The Prin Ciples Of The Art Of War, Naval Or Military. No Navy Nor Army Can Hold Its Own That Fails To Keep Abreast Of Sciences That Relate Themselves To Naval Or Military ...

Naval Intelligence
Naval Intelligence. The Office Of Naval Intelligence Is Charged With The Collec Tion And Dissemination Of Such Technical Infor Mation At Home And Abroad As Will Be Useful To The Various Bureaus Of The Navy Department In The Formulation Of Plans For War And In The Development Of Personnel And ...

Naval Militia
Naval Militia. The First Naval Militia Organization In The United States Was Estab Lished In The State Of Massachusetts As A Part Of The Organized Militia On 29 March 1890. Other Seacoast And Lake States Soon Followed. In 1891 There Was Included In The Naval Militia Act, As Passed By ...

Naval Mines
Naval Mines. Naval Mining Is Logic Ally Divided As Follows: (1) Coastal Mining, Which Denies To An Enemy Suitable Ports, Unde Fended Or Nearly So; (2) Advance Base Min Ing; (3) Off-shore Or Strategical Mining; (4) Battle Or Tactical Mining, During An Engagement Between Fleets. Coastal Mining, Outside Of Areas ...

Ophthalmic Mi Graine Migraine
Migraine, Ophthalmic Mi Graine, Or Sick Headache, A Very Widespread Affection, Also Known As Megrim, Hemicrania Or Bilious Headache. It Is A Vaso Motor Disturbance; In Other Words, One In Which The Nerves Which Expand Or Contract The Arteries And Blood Vessels Are Affected, Thus Restricting The Flow Of Blood. ...

Pasteurized
Pasteurized M Iljc.•-•-• Milk Of This Class Shall Come From Cows Free From Disease As Determined By Physical Examina Tions By A Qualified Veterinarian, And Shall Be Produced And Handled Under Sanitary Conditions, Such That The Bacteria Count At No Time Exceeds 200,000 Per Cubic Centimeter. All Milk Of This ...

Representative
Representative In Military Map Reading, Fraction Whose Numerator Bears To The Denominator The Same Proportion That A Distance On The Map Bears To The Distance On The Ground It Represents. The Numerator Must Always Be 1, And The Denominator Is Expressed In Similar Units. A Circular Steel Gauge Used In ...

Shoulder Insignia
Shoulder Insignia. Major-general.— Two Silver Stars. Brigadier-general.— One Silver Star. Colonel.— One Silver Eagle. Lieutenant-colonel.— One Silver Leaf. Major.— One Gold Leaf. Captain.— Two Silver Bars. First Lieutenant.— One Silver Bar. Second Lieutenant.— One Gold Bar With A Blank Field With Dress Uniform, No Insignia With Service Uniform. Officers Of ...

Sir Milner
Milner, Sir Alfred, Viscount Milner, English Administrator: B. Bonn, Germany, 23 March 1854. He Studied In Germany, Where His Father Had Been Instructor In English At The University Of Tubingen, Then At King's Col Lege, London, And At Balliol, Oxford; Was Fel Low Of New College, Oxford; Was Called To ...

Sir More
More, Sir Thomas, English Statesman And Author: B. London, 7 Feb. 1478; D. There, 6 July 1535. In 1492-94 He Studied At Canterbury Hall, Now Christ Church, Oxford, And In 1494 Was A Student In Lincoln's Inn. At 21 He Obtained A Seat In Parliament, And Distinguished Himself With Spirit ...

Sir Morgan
Morgan, Sir Henry John, Welsh Bucca Neer, Lieutenant-governor Of Jamaica : B. Llan Rhynny, Glamorganshire, About 1635; D. Jamaica, 1688. While A Boy He Was Kidnapped At Bris Told And Sold At Barbados. Just When He Joined The Jamaica Buccaneers Is Uncertain, As There Were Several Morgans In The Marine ...

Sir Murchison
Murchison, Sir Roderick Impey, Scottish Geologist: B. Tarradale, Ross, Scotland, 19 Feb. 1792; D. London, 22 Oct. 1871. He Was Educated At The Military College In Great Marlow And At The University Of Edin Burgh; Entered The Army In 1807 And Served Under Wellington In The Peninsular Campaign, But Retired ...

Or Blacktail Mule Deer
Mule Deer, Or Blacktail, A Deer U Of The Western States (odocoileus Hemionus), Remarkable For Its Disproportion Ately Large Ears. Its Common Name Thlacktail° Among The Hunters Is Due To The Black Color Of The Terminal Part Of The Tail, Distinguishing It From The (whitetail° Or Eastern Deer (q.v.) ; ...

Or Common Mica Muscovite
Muscovite, Or Common Mica, A Native Silicate Of Aluminum, Potassium And Hy Drogen, Occurring In Crystals That Belong To The Monoclinic System, Though Usually Hexagonal Or Rhombic In General Form, And Distinguished By The Facility With Which It May Be Split Into Thin Laminae. Muscovite Also Occurs In Massive Forms ...

Or Dogfish Mud Minnow
Mud-minnow, Or Dogfish, One Of The Smaller Fresh-water Carnivorous Fishes Of The Pike Family, The Esocidae And The Genus Umbra Related To The Alaskan Blackfish (dailia). It Lives In Muddy Bayous, And Among Weeds At The Bottom Of Clear But Sluggish Streams, Often Burrowing In Loose Mud. There Are Two ...

Or Maisur Mysore State
Mysore State, Or Maisur, A Native State In Southern India, Lying Between Lat. 36' And 15* 2' N. And 74° 38' And 78° 36' E Its Area Is 29,433 Square Miles; The Greatest Length North And South Being About 230 Miles; East And West About 290 Miles. It Is Bounded ...

Or Marrakesh Morocco
Morocco, Or Marrakesh, The Second Capital Of The Sultanate Of Morocco (q.v.) On The North Side Of An Extensive And Fer Tile Plain, 1,500 Feet Above Sea-level, About 96 Miles From Its Port On The Atlan Tic, And 230 Miles Southwest Of Fez, The Chief Capital Of The Empire. It ...

Or Monachism Monasticism
Monasticism, Or Monachism, Is A State Of Life In Retirement From The World Adopted For Motives Of Religion. It Is Not Peculiar To Christianity, For In Many Religions, As That Of Israel, And In Those Of India, China And Tibet, The Same Motive Has Led Men To Withdraw Themselves Wholly ...

Or Mongoose Mungoos
Mungoos, Or Mongoose, An Ich Neumon (herpestes Griseus), Common In Many Parts Of India, And Closely Akin To The Egyptian Species Ichneumon (q.v.). The Mungoos Is A Burrowing, Nocturnal, Weasel-like Animal, Tawny Yellowish-gray, 16 Or 17 Inches Long, And With A Long Thick Terete Tail. It Kills Numerous Birds, Sucking ...

Or Munchen Munich
Munich, Or Munchen, Mild Germany, The Capital Of Bavaria, One Of The Most Beautiful Cities In Europe, Lies On An Extensive But Uninteresting Plateau, About 1,700 Feet Above Sea-level, On The Left Bank Of The Isar, With Suburbs On The Right, The River Being Crossed By Nine Bridges. The Original ...

Or Musquash Muskrat
Muskrat, Or Musquash, An Aquatic Rodent (fiber Zibethicus) Numerous Throughout North America, And Yielding A Valuable Fur. It Is A Member Of The Rat Family (micride, Q.v.), And Is, In Effect, A Gigantic Vole Or Meadow Mouse, With A Tail Flattened Sideways Into A Powerful Swimming Instrument, And Fringed With ...

Or Myxosporidia
Myxosporidia, Or Fish Psorosperms, Are Protozoa Belonging To The Class Sporozoa. They Are Characteristic Fish Parasites. Occurring On The Gills, In The Skin And Muscles, And Free In Swimming Bladder, Gall Bladder And Urinary Bladder. Serious Epidemics And Common Dis Eases Among Fishes Are Due To Their Excessive Multiplication Under ...

Or Nanking Cloth Nankeen
Nankeen, Or Nanking Cloth, A Sort Of Cotton Cloth, Which Takes Its Name From The City Of Nanking, Where It Was Originally Manufactured. It Was Formerly Imported Ex Tensively From China, But Has Generally Been I Superseded By Other Fabrics. It Is Now Imitated In Most Other Countries Where Cotton ...

Or Naphthalin Naphthalene
Naphthalene, Or Naphthalin, A Coal-tar Product Consisting Of Carbon And Hydrogen, With The Chemical Composition G.h. And A Certain Chemical Similarity To Benzene. Its Peculiar Chemical Composition May Be Repre Sented By The Graphic Formula Known As The Condensed Benzine Rings, As Below. These Are Generally Written Without The Letter ...

Or Nashe Nash
Nash, Or Nashe, Thomas, English Satirist And Dramatist: B. Lowestoft, Suffolk, 1567; D. 1601. He Studied At Cambridge In 1586, Spent Some Time On The Continent, And Before 1588 Came To London. In 1589 He Pub Lished His 'anatomic Of Absurditie.) In The Literary Warfare Carried On Between The Puri ...

Or Natu Ral Religion
Natural Theology, Or Natu Ral Religion, That Knowledge Of God's Existence And Nature Which Mankind Learn From Observation Of The World Of Nature. Biblical Theology, Or, As It Is More Commonly Called, Religion,'' Is The Knowledge Of God's Nature And Operations Derived From Revelation; And Revelation Is Impossible Unless We ...