NANKEEN, or NANKING CLOTH, a sort of cotton cloth, which takes its name from the city of Nanking, where it was originally manufactured. It was formerly imported ex tensively from China, but has generally been i superseded by other fabrics. It is now imitated in most other countries where cotton goods are woven. The English manufactures have now so completely driven the Chinese from the mar ket that large quantities are shipped from that country to Canton.
NANKING, (officially Kiang ning, that is, Southern Capital), China, capital of the province of Kiangsu, and vice-regal headquarters for the three provinces of Kiang su, ICiangsi and Ngan-hui, near the south bank of the Yang-tse-Kiang, 560 miles south by east of Peking. It is 18 miles in circum ference and is surrounded by a wall 40 feet high. The principal streets are of moderate width, clean, well paved and lined with hand some stores; but the houses are, in general, mean, and only one story high. The part of the city occupied by the Manchus is separated by a wall from the Chinese town. Thereare extensive manufactures of fine satin and crape, and the cotton cloth which foreigners call nankeen derives its name from this city; paper and ink of fine quality, and beautiful artificial flowers of pith paper, are produced here. Nan
king is celebrated also for its scholars and literary atmosphere, having many large libra ries. Nanking was the capital of the Chinese Empire frm 1368 to 1403, but when the seat of government was transferred to Peking it lost its importance and a great part of its popula tion, while about a third of its area is now un occupied. The only remarkable remains of royalty are the sepulchral Ming statues situated near the walls. The famous porcelain tower of nine stories and 260 feet in height, completed in 1432, was destroyed during the Taiping Rebellion. The city was held from the spring of 1853 to July 1864 by the Taipings, who made it their capital. At its capture by the rebels and recapture by the Imperialists it suffered severely. By the French treaty of 1858 Nan king was made a treaty port, but never at tained any importance as such, owing to the vicinity oi Chinkiang-fu. Pop. estimated at 300,000.