ARNAULD, ir-no', ancient noble family, among whose most distinguished members are the family of Auvergne. (1) ANGELIQUE : b. Paris, 24 Nov. 1624; d. 24 Jan. 1684. She was the granddaughter of the great Arnauld and was abbess of the famous nunnery of Port Royal from 1678. Consult Lives by Martin (1876) ; Monlaur (1901) and 'Angelique of Port Royal) (1905). (2) ANTOINE: b. Paris 1560; d. 1619. He was a zealous defender of the cause of Henry IV, and was distinguished for several political pamphlets and for his powerful and successful defense of the Univer sity of Paris against the Jesuits in 1594. He drew on himself the hatred of the Jesuits, but was esteemed the greatest lawyer of his time. His numerous children formed the nucleus of the sect of the Jansenists (see JaNsEtnus) in France. (3) ANTOINE, called the uGreat Ar nauld,)) youngest child of the lawyer Antoine Arnauld: b. Paris, 6 Feb. 1612; d. Brussels, 9 Aug. 1694. He devoted himself to theology, and was received in 1641 amdng the doctors of the Sorbonne. In the same year he attacked the Jesuits in two works, 'De la frequente Com munion) and 'La Theologie Morale des Jesuites,) the first of which occasioned much controversy because it applied the principles of the Jansemsts to the receiving of the sacrament. After 1650, when ,Jansenism had become an object of public odium and the watchword of an important party in the state, Arnauld en gaged in all theuarrels of the French Jan senists with the Jesuits, the clergy and the government, was their chief writer and was considered their head. The intrigues of the court occasioned his exclusion from the Sor bonne (1656) and the persecutions which com pelled him to conceal himself. After the recon
ciliation between Pope Clement IX and the Jansenists, in 1668, he appeared in public and enjoyed the homage which even the court did not refuse to his merits and talents. He now attacked the Calvinists in many controversial tracts ('Renversement de la Morale de Jesus Christ par les Calvinistes); 'L'impiete de la Morale des Calvinistes,' etc.), and with his friend Nicole composed the great work, 'La Perpetuite de la Foi de l'Eglise Catholique touchant l'Euchariste,> in opposition to them. On account of the new persecutions of the court, or rather of the Jesuits, he fled, in 1679, to the Netherlands. He was a man of a vigor ous and consistent mind, full of solid knowledge and great thoughts; in his writings, bold and violent to bitterness, undaunted in danger and of irreproachable morals. His works were pub lished at Lausanne between 1775 and 1783, and again at Paris in 1843. There is no modern biography. For his philosophy consult Bouil her, 'Histoire de la philosophic cartesienne) (Paris 1868) ; and for his mathematical achieve ments consult Bopp, 'Abhandlungen zur Ge schichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften' (Leipzig 1902). (4) JACQUELINE MARIE, sister , of the preceding, a French nun better known as Marie Angelique de Sainte Madeleine. She was famed for piety and was prominent among the Jansenists. She was prioress of Port Royal. Consult Life by Martin (1873).