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Bibliography.— Beard and Schulz, 'Docu ments on State-wide Initiative, Referendum and Recall) (New York 1912; gives text of laws of various States) ; Barnett, J. D., 'Operation of the Initiative, Referendum and Recall irt*Uregon> 1915; gives bibliography relating to Oregon) ; Bourne, J.,Jr., 'Initiative, Referendum and Recall) (in Atlantic Monthly, Vol. CVIII, pp. 122-30, 1911) ; Bacon, E. M. and Wyman, M., 'Direct Elections and Law making by Popular Vote) (Boston 1912) ; Hen drick, B. J., 'Recall in Seattle) (in McClure's Magazine, VoL XXXVII, pp. 647-63, 1911); Lowell, A. L., 'Public Opinion and Popular Government) (New York 1913) ; McLaughlin, A. C., 'The Courts, The Constitution and (Chicago 1912) • McCall, S. W., 'Representative against Direct Government) (in Atlantic Monthly, Vol. CVIII, pp. 454-66, 1911) • Munro, W. B. 'Initiative, Referendum and Recall) (New York 1912) ; Oberholtzer, E. P., 'Referendum, Initiative and Recall in America) (ib. 1912) ; Phelps, E. M., 'Selected Articles on the Recall) (2d ed., White Plains, N. Y., 1915) ; Wilcox, D. F., 'Government by all the People: The Initiative, the Referendum and the Recall as Instruments of Democracy) (New York 1912) ; 'Some Indirections of Direct Government) (in The Nation, Vol. CII, pp. 243-44, 2 March 1916) ; Woodburn, J. A., 'Political Parties and Party Problems (rev. ed., New York 1914). In The National Municipal Review (Vol. III, pp. 693-701, Octo ber 1914) is a summary by Charles F. Taylor of the uses of the initiative, referendum and recall in various cities up to 1914.

RgCAMIER, ri-ka-me-d, Jeanne Fran cois Julie Adelaide Bernard, French social reader: b. Lyons, 4 Dec. 1777; (I. Paris, 11 May 1849. She was educated at the convent of La Deserte. At 16 she went to Paris, whither her father, a wealthy banker, had transferred his business. Her extraordinary beauty and talents brought round her shoals of suitors belonging to the world of letters, finance and politics, and in 1793 she was married to Jacques Recamier, a rich banker, more Than double her own age. The Rica:Tiler salon was long filled with many of the celebrities of the day. Though she wrote nothing, she, by her confidential intercourse with Chateaubriand and others, exercised no slight influence on French literature. Under the empire she was opposed to Napoleon, as he had placed her father under surveillance for his royalist tendencies, and Napoleon took his re venge by refusing to support the bank of her husband during a crisis. It accordingly failed, and Madame Recamier was obliged to quit Paris. She took up her residence with her friend Madame de Stael at Coppet, and after ward traveled, like her, until the downfall of Napoleon, when she again opened her salon in the Abliaye-aux-Bois at Paris. Consult 'Souve nirs et Correspondance tires des Papiers de Madame Recamier) (1859, 4th ed., 1873) and 'Madame Recamier) (1872), both edited by her niece, Madame Lenorrnant; also the biography by Brunier (1875).