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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 23

1 Realism
Realism, (1) A Term In At Least Two Fun Damentally Different Seems In The History Of Phi Losophy. (a) During The Period Of Scholasti Cism (q.v.), Realism Denotes The Doctrine That Universals Have An Existence Which Is In Some Sense Independent Of The Particular Things That Appear To The Senses. ...

1 Representation
Representation, (1) The Authorized Acting By One Person In Behalf Of Another, As In A Legislative Assembly; Also, The System Of Choosing Such Representatives. Representation In A Modified Form Was Known In Ancient Times, And The Principle Was Extended By The Church, In Its Ecumenical Councils. The Germanic Na Tions, ...

Angelic
Angelic A Community Of Dutch Pietists Founded By George Gichtel In The 16th Century. Its Members Held That, Having Attained A State Of Angelic Purity, They Should Give No Further Thought To Marriage. Extinct. One Definition For The High Church School In The Episcopal Church. The Name Applied To Those ...

Chinolin Quinoline
Quinoline, Chinolin, Leuco Line, C,h,n. Runge (1834) Isolated At A High Boiling Point An Oily Basic Substance From Coal Tar To Which He Gave The Name Geukol.d Gerhardt (1842) Obtained An Oil By Distilling Quinine Or Cinchonine With Caustic Potash. He Called It Quinolein From Its Relation To Quinine, But ...

Cuurch Or
Cuurch Or Gon In Jesus Chrlb't. See Anvennste, Chures Od Riffs Naw Jeausar Xil See Cavaca Or Ras New Jeausa• I Coolees.— A Sect Of Total Abstainers Whose Chief Tenet Is That Its Members Are Morally Incapable Of Committing Any Sin. Coo Ecwns.— A Sect Which, Founded In The 17th ...

Endum
Endum. Bibliography.— Beard And Schulz, 'docu Ments On State-wide Initiative, Referendum And Recall) (new York 1912; Gives Text Of Laws Of Various States) ; Barnett, J. D., 'operation Of The Initiative, Referendum And Recall Irt*uregon> 1915; Gives Bibliography Relating To Oregon) ; Bourne, J.,jr., 'initiative, Referendum And Recall) (in Atlantic ...

Flue And Stringed In
Reed, Flue And Stringed In Struments, Temperament, Tun Ing And Voicing Of. Temperament.— The Intervals Of The Perfect Octave Are Divided Naturally Into 53 Parts Or Commas, The Succes Sive Sounds Of The Diatonic Scale Being Separated By These Commas Into The Following Intervals: Naturei Arbitrary Division Of The Octave, ...

Igneous
Igneous Rocks. (definitions Depending Upon External Form And Mode Of Occurrence.) Igneous Rocks Com Prise All Those Portions Of The Lithosphere Which Are Or Were In An Intensely Heated And More Or Less Fluid Condition And Which Have Subse Quently Solidified By Cooling Into Massive, More Or Less Crystalline Bodies ...

Lion Or Rivers
Lion Or Rivers. General.— In Law A Body Of Water Having A Uniform Current Is Generally Termed A River. It Consists Of The Bed, The Water And The Banks Or Shores According As The Stream Is Non-tidal Or Tidal. The Law Applicable To Rivet-3 And Their Use Depends Upon The ...

Metamorph
Metamorph Rocxs. The Metamorphism Of Sediments.— Those Most Ancient Of All Sediments Which Were De Rived From The Disintegration Of The Original Or Primal Rocks Of The Lithosphere, And Which Were First Deposited In The Primordial Seas, Have Been So Deeply Buried In The Crust Of The Earth As To ...

N C Raleigh
Raleigh, N. C., City, Capital Of The County-seat Of Wake County, In Lat. 35° 47 N., Long. 78° 48' W., On The Southern, Norfolk Southern And The Seaboard Air Line Railroads, About 28 Miles Southeast Of Durham, 148 Miles Northwest Of Wilmington And 60 Miles North East Of Pinehurst. Topography.— ...

N J Ridgewood
Ridgewood, N. J., Village In Bergen County, On The Erie Railroad, About 21 Miles North Of New York. The Railroad Divides The Village Into Eastern And Western Sections. The Is In A Residential Locality; The. Western Side Is Built Up With 'fine Residences', Most Of Them The Homes Of 'men ...

N Y Rochester
Rochester, N. Y., City And County-seat Of Monroe County, Is Situated On Lake Ontario, The Genesee River And The Barge Canal. It Is Reached By The Following Railroads: New York Central And Hudson River, West Shore, Lehigh Valley, Erie, Buffalo, Rochester And Pittsburgh And The Pennsylvania. It Has Two Car ...

N Y Rome
Rome, N. Y., City In Oneida County, On The Mohawk River And At The Junction Of The Barge, Erie And Black River Canals, And On The New York Central And New York, Ontario And Western Railroads. The City Is About 110 Miles West By North Of Albany And 15 Miles ...

Ouida
Ouida. Ramie, Pierre, Pear Ri-ma (latinized, Petrus Ramus), French Humanist And Mathe Matician : B. Cuth, Near Soissons, 1515 ; D. Paris, 26 Aug. 1572. He Went To Paris When He Was But Eight Years Old, And Became Lackey To A Rich Stu Dent In The College Of Navarre, But ...

Poison
Poison Francois Charles Joseph Bonaparte), Titular Emperor Of France: B. Paris, 20 March 1811; D. Schonbrunnustria, 22 July 1832. He N Was Son Of Emperor Napoleon I (q.v.), And From His Birth Was Styled Of Rome." In 1814 Napoleon Abdicated In Favor Of His Son. But The Senate Took No ...

Pre Toria And Waterford
Roberts Of Kandahar, Pre.. Toria And Waterford, Frederick Sleigh, 1st Earl, British Soldier: B. Cawnpore, India, 30 Sept. 1832; D. Saint Omer, France, 14 Nov. 1914. Son Of General Sir Abraham Roberts; He Was Educated At Eton, Sandhurst And Addiscombe; And Was Commissioned Sec Ond Lieutenant, Bengal Artillery In 1851. ...

Product
Product Area In Acres Bushels Total Yalu* Spring Wheat 64.1 1 960,000 81,786,000 Chita 24,411.000 18,796.000 Buckwheat 1,919m0 2,322,000 Mixed Grains Yl,,,. 1,843,000 1,825,000 Potatoes 112,000 14,672,000 14.232,000 Turnips 10,000 2,00.000 1.272,000 Ifayanddknmr 2,985,000 5,224,000 57,464,000 Fodder Corn 31,000 248,000 1,476,000 Fisheries.— The Total Value Of The Fisheries Of The ...

Production Or
Production Or Ric In The 'united States For 120 Years, 1795 To 1915, With Tariff' Rates Prevailing From 1789 To 1857. Although The Superiority Of American Rice Was A Fact Long Before The Civil War The Success That Planters Have Attained Since 1865 Has Been Indicated In A Better Quality ...

Pumps And Pumping Machin
Pumps And Pumping Machin Ery. In The Modern Acceptation Of The Term, A Pump Is A Machine For Exerting Mechanical Action Upon Fluids. It Is Commonly Employed For Raising Liquids To A Higher Level; For Propelling Them Through Pipes And Orifices Under (hydrats• Lic) Pressure; And For The Compressing And ...

Punch
Punch, A. Well-known English Comic Weekly, The Most Famous Journal Of The Kind. The Success Of Philipon's• Paris Charivari In Duced A Staff Of Several Englislunen — Some, As Douglas, Jerrold, Thackeray And John Leech, Since Famous — To Organize For The Publication Of A London Charivari, Of Which Whole ...

Punctuation
Punctuation, From The Latin Pundits, °a Point,* Is The Term Used To Designate The Use Of Points, Or Marks, For The Purpose Of Separat Ing Words From Each Other In Sentences And Parts Of Sentences. The Convenience Of Such Separation Is Obvious, Yet For Many Centuries After Writing Had First ...

Punishment
Punishment, In The Strict Sense Of The Term, Is A Definite Expression Of Public In Dignation, At Least Conventional, If Not Genuinely Moral. It Always Aims, At Least, At Expressing The Indignation Of The Social Group, And In This Resides The Fact That It Is Only Externally Similar To The ...

Punjab
Punjab, Pnn-jab', Or Panjab (persian, Cfive Waters"), An Extensive Territory In The Northwest Of Hindustan, Formerly Under The Dominion Of The Sikhs, But In 1849 Annexed To British India. It Is So Called From Its Position, Being Intersected By The Five Great Rivers Which Unite To Pour Their Waters Into ...

Punjabi Language And Liter
Punjabi Language And Liter- Ature. Punjabi (also Panjabi From Persian Punyautn—"five Rivers))) Is An Ancient Indian Or Hindi Dialect. Of A Total Population Of About 26 000,000 Inhabiting The Punjab (or Panjab) A Large District In Northwest India, Some 18,000,- 000 To 19,000,000 Speak Punjabi As Their Common Vernacular; Some ...

Purcell
Purcell, Per'sel, Henry English Com Poser: B. London, 1658; D. 21 I?tov. 1695. He Was The Son Of A Musician Of The Chapel-royal, Who Left Him An Orphan In His Sixth Year. He Was Admitted A Chorister In The King's Chapel, Where He Studied Music Under Choir-master Cook And His ...

Purcell_2
Purcell, John Baptist, American Ro Man Catholic Archbishop: B. Mallow, County Cork, Ireland, 26 Feb. 1800; D. Brown County, Ohio, 4 July 1883. He Came To The United States In L818, Was Educated At Mount Saint Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Md., Received Minor Or Ders, And Later Studied At Saint Sulpician's ...

Purchase System
Purchase System, A System Of Ap Pointment And Promotion For Officers, Prevailing In The English Army From The Time Of Queen Anne Until 1871, When It Was Abolished By Royal Warrant. About Half Of The Officers Of The Army Received Their Appointments Under It. It Was Possible To Purchase An ...

Purdue University
Purdue University, The Indiana State College Of Agriculture And Mechanic Arts, Is Located At Lafayette, Ind. It Was Es Tablished Under The Land Grant Act Of Congress In 1862 And In 1869 Was Named For John Purdue, Who Gave $150,000 And 100 Acres Of Land To The State For The ...

Pure Food Acts
Pure Food Acts. Pure Food Legisla Tion Has Been Rendered Necessary By The Will Ingness Of Producers To Flood The Markets With Food Products, Drinks And Drugs Which Are Adulterated. These Adulterations Were Induced By The Desire Of Manufacturers To Increase Their Profits. The Practice Resulted In Wholesale Frauds Upon ...

Purgatory
Purgatory, According To The Doctrine Of The Roman Catholic Church, A State Or Place In Which The Souls Of Those Who Depart This Life In The Grate Of God Suffer For A Time, In Ex Piation Of Their Venial Transgressions Or In Un Dergoing The Penalty Due To Mortal Sins, ...

Purifying Apparatus
Purifying Apparatus, Is Of Use In Many Industries And Economic Processes, Partic Ularly In The Water Supply Of Communities Where The Available Source Does Not Yield A Pure Product. Aside From The Various Chemical Treatments Of Such Waters The Electrolytic Sys Tem Has Found Favor In That It Purifies Without ...

Puritanism
Puritanism. The• Puritans Were Those Who Thought That The English Reformation Had Not Gone Far Enoug In Its Sepayation From The Roman Catholic Urch, But That There Were Many Ceremonies And Forms Still Retained In The Worship Which Were Too Suggestive Of Papacy. They Held That It Was Not Expedient ...

Purple
Purple. A Color Located In The Spec Trum Between Crimson And Violet. It Is Poeti Cally Termed The Royal Color. The Ancients At Tributed The Discovery Of Purple To The Phoeni Cians. The Story Of Its Having Been Discovered By A Dog Biting A Purple-fish, And Thus Staining His Mouth, ...

Purple Shell
Purple Shell, A Gastropod Mollusk Of The Family Muricida And Especially Of One Sec Tion Of It Of Which The Genus Purpura Is Typical. A Great Many Species Are Found In All Seas. The True Purples Form The Subfamily, Purpur Inc. The Muricida. Are Carniverous Marine Snails Very Destructive To ...

Puseyism
Puseyism. See Oxford Movement, Th.11. Pushkin,_poosh'kin, Alexander (spelled Also Poushkin, Pouchakin), Russian Poet: B. Moscow, 26 May (7 June) 1799; D. Saint Peters Burg, 29 Jan. (10 Feb.) 1837. He Received His First Education In The Lyceum At Tsarskoe-selo. In 1817 He Entered The Service Of The Govern Ment In ...

Pussy
Pussy, Edward Bouverie, English Scholar And Theologian: B. Near Oxford, 22 Aug. 1800; D. Ascot Priory, Berkshire, 16 Sept. 1882. He Was A Son Of The Hon. Philip Bouverie (of The Radnor Family), Who Assumed The Name Of Pusey By Royal License On Becoming Lord Of The Manor Of That ...

Putnam
Putnam, Israel, American Revolutionary Soldier: B. Salem (now Danvers), Mass., 7 Jan. 1718; D. Pomfret (now Brooklyn), Conn., 19 May 1790. His Education Was A Desultory One. In 1740 He Removed From Salem And Purchased In That Part Of Pomfret, Conn., Which Is Now Brooklyn, The Farm Where He Afterward ...

Putnam_2
Putnam, Rufus, American Revolution Ary Soldier: B. Sutton, Mass., 9 April 1738; D. Marietta, Ohio, 1 May 1824. He Was Ap Prenticed In 1754 To A Millwright, But Acquired Some Knowledge Of Surveying And Later Found Employment In That Profession. In March 1757 He Enlisted As A Private For Service ...

Or Arabian Gulf Red
Red Sea, Or Arabian Gulf (an Cient, Mare Rubrum, More Erythreeinti, Or Sinus Arabicus; Arabic, A Branch Of The Indian Ocean, Extending From The Strait Of Bab-el-mandeb, In A North-northwest Direction Between Arabia On The East, And Abyssinia, Nubia And Egypt On The West, And Connected With The Mediterranean On ...

Or Biogenetic Law Recapitulation
Recapitulation, Or Biogenetic Law, In Zoology, Terms Applied To The Parallel Which Exists Between The Embryonic Develop Ment Of An Individual Animal (ontogeny) And The Historical Evolution Of Its Race (phylogeny). This Parallel Is Explained By The Theory Of Evo Lution (q.v.), According To Which, In The Words Of Sidgwick, ...

Or Body Snatchers Resurrectionists
Resurrectionists, Or Body Snatchers, A Class Of Miscreants Who, In Britain Previous To The Passing Of The Anatomy Act Of 1832, Made A Livelihood By Rifling Graves, Taking Out The Corpses And Selling Them To Schools Of Medicine And Surgery As '
Or Cordil Leran System
Rocky Mountains, Or Cordil. Leran System, The Of Mountains Which Constitute The Major Axis Of Elevated Lands Of North America, In The Western Part, Extending From The Arctic Ocean On The North To South America On The South, Sad Parallel With The Pacific Coast This Great System Of Mountains Is ...

Or Glir Rodentia
Rodentia, Or Glir,es, An Extensive Order Of Mammalia, Represented By Such Forms As Mice, Beavers, Porcupines, Squirrels, Rabbits, Lemmings, Etc. Of The Characteristics Tooth Structures Are The Most Important. The Canines Are Always Absent And The Incisors Large And Chisel-like And, With The Exception Of The Le Poridce, Which Have ...

Or Inference Reasoning
Reasoning, Or Inference, Is The Mental Process In Which We Advance From Some Known Fact Or Principle To The Truth Of Some Other Fact Which Is Different From The Start Ing-point. The Basis For The Transition Is Always Found In The Knowledge From Which We Set Out. This Is Taken ...

Or Pluviometer Rain Gauge
Rain-gauge, Or Pluviometer, An Instrument Which Measures The Depth Of The Rainfall. In Its Commonest Form It Consists Of A Cylindric Vessel Closed At The Top By A Funnel Shaped Lid, Through A Hole In The Centre Of Which The Rain Falls. A Narrow Glass Tube, Raising Outside The Vessel ...

Or Racquets Rackets
Rackets, Or Racquets, A Game Played In A Prepared Court, Open Or Close, With A Small Hard Ball And A Kind Of Bat. The Bat Is About Two Feet In Length, About Two-thirds Of Which Forms The Shaft Or Handle, The Remainder Being An Oval Frame On Which Is Tightly ...

Or Radicle Radical
Radical, Or Radicle, In Chemistry (and Particularly In Organic Chemistry), A Name Given To Certain Molecular Groups Whose Con Stituent Atoms Possess Such Relations And Affini Ties That The Groups Themselves Persist And Maintain Their Integrity, Even When The Com Pounds In Which They Occur Undergo Profound Chemical Change. The ...

Or Railway Brother Hoods
Railway Labor Organiza Tions, Or Railway Brother Hoods, Labor Unions Formed By The Em Ployees Of Railways To Advance Their Interests And Promote Their Social, Moral And Intellectual Welfare. The Larger And More Typical Railway Labor Organizations Are Distinguished For Their Generally Conservative Attitude, Their Large Mu Tual Benefit And ...

Or Ras Colnicins Raskolniks
Raskolniks, Or Ras Colnici+ns,. The Name Applied Collectively To All The Dissenters From The Orthodox Church Of Russia, The Greek-eastern Church. The Schism, Or Raskol; Was Affected At Two Different Times Principally; First During The 17th Century Upon The Occasion Of The Revision Of The Testa Ments By Patriarch Nikou ...

Or Refunders Readjusters
Readjusters, Or Refunders, The Name Of A Political Party In Virginia, Which Passed Several Bills Providing For The Scaling And Partial Rejection Of The Public Debt Of The State. Virginia, At The Close Of The Civil War, Was Greatly Improverished, Burdened With A Large Indebtedness, And Shorn Of Part Of ...

Or Renascence Renaissance
Renaissance, Or Renascence, Is A Term Given To The Period Of Transition From The Middle Ages To Modern Times, And To The Movement Of Thought Which Characterized That Period. Etymologically The French Renaissance — Italian Rinascimmto— Means Rebirth. A Rebirth Of Classical Forms In Literature And Art Is Supposed To ...

Or Reptilia Reptiles
Reptiles, Or Reptilia, A Class Of Vertebrate Animals. Although No Two Groups Of Vertebrata Are More Dissimilar In General Appearance And Habits, And To The Popular Mind Might Seem More Unrelated Than The Birds And Reptiles, They Are, By Common Consent Of Modern Systematists, Combined In A Superclass, The Sauropsida, ...

Or Resin Rosin
Rosin, Or Resin, The Name Given To The Rosin Of Coniferous Trees Employed In A Solid State For Ordinary Purposes. It Is Obtained From Turpentine By Distillation. In The Process The Bil Of The Turpentine Comes Over And The Rosin Remains Behind. There Are Several Varieties Of Rosin, Varying In ...

Or Riels Rebellion
Riel's Rebellion, Or The Northwest' Rebellion, Was An Outbreak Of The Half-breeds' And Indians Of The Valley Of The Saskatchewan, In The Spring Of 1885, Promptly Suppressed By The Canadian Militia. For Some Time Past Dis Content Had Been Rife Among The Half-breeds, Or 'meth, Of That District, Who Feared ...

Or Rifle Bird Rifleman
Rifleman, Or Rifle Bird, An Aus Tralian Forest-bird (ptilorrhit Poradiseea), Close Ly Related To The Birds Of Paradise And So Called Because Its Colors And Ornaments Re Minded The Colonists Of The Old Uniform Of The British Rifle Brigade. The Male Is Regarded' As More Splendid In Plumage Than Any ...

Or Robert Rupert
Rupert, Or Robert, Of Bavaria, Pri/4ce : B. Prague, 18 Dec. 1619; D. London, 29 Nov. 1682. He Was The Son Of Frederick V, Elector Palatine And Titular King Of Bohemia, By The Princess Elizabeth Of England, Daughter Of James I; Was Educated At Leyden And Early Engaged In Military ...

Or Robespierre
Robespierre, Or Whis Per, Maximilien Francois Marie French Revolutionist: B. Arras, 6 May 1758; D. Paris, 28 July 1794. He Was The Son Of An Avocat And Having Been Left An Orphan At 11 Was Sent By His Grandfather To The College Of His Native Town, From Which He Passed ...

Or Ryazan Riazan
Riazan, Or Ryazan, Russia, (1) City, Capital Of The Government Of Riazan, On The Trubesh, A Branch Of The Oka. It Is Hi An Agri Cultural Region, In Which The Chief Product Ex Ported Is Rye. The Chief Manufactures Of The City Are Woolen And Linen Goods, Leather And Needles. ...

Or Stag Red Deer
Red Deer, Or Stag, The Common Deer (cervus Elephas) Of Europe And Western Asia, Which Is Typical Of The Family, And The Ordinary (deer)) Of Literature And Poetry As Well As Of The Chase. It Much Resembles The American Wapiti, But Is Smaller And Rather Darker In General Color. A ...

Or Sucking Fish Remora
Remora, Or Sucking-fish, A Popular Name For Any Species Of The Family Echineiaida And Order Discocepliali. It Is About Eight Inches Long And Common In The Mediterranean. The Top Of The Head Is Provided With A Peculiar Sucking Disc, A Modification Of The Spinous Dor Sal Fin, Composed Of A ...