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tribes, indian, comanche and parker

QUANA, Parker, Comanche chief : b. about 1845; d. 1911; the most influential leader 'among the three confederated tribes of Kiowa, Comanche and Apache in southwestern Okla homa. He was the son of Nokoni, the principal chief of the Comanche, and Cynthia Parker, a white captive. Qua= became prominent in 1874, when he acted as leader of the band of 700 picked warriors from the confederated tribes in an attack on the South Canadian River fort, Adobe Walls. He was active in the Indian uprising of the following year and was the last to surrender when peace was ultimately made. His superior intelligence, however, in duced him to acquire white habits and customs, and after some time spent in Texas, he became thoroughly convinced of the benefits of civilized life. On his return to his tribe he endeavored to persuade them to adopt his views. In 1882 he proposed leasing the surplus pasture lands of the reservation, a measure which increased the income of the. tribes $100,000 yearly. In 1888 he was appointed -a judge of the Indian Court, and in 1892 was the first signer of the treaty. which opened- the reservation lands . to settlers in 1901. Parker Quana did much to the Indian tribes under his leadership.

. He was himself a man of keen intelligence and a linguist, speaking several Indian dialects and LEngltsh and Spanish.. He recognized that. the only salvation for the 'Indian was to be found in education and the adoption of the ways of civilisation. He established schools for the Indians and all his children were well educated. Two at least of his daughters married white men. After the division of the Indian lands, Parker Quana lived in a large modern house surrounded by a well-cultivated ranch. For considerably over a quarter of a century he was the most prominent tnetaber of the three allied tribes, Kiowa, Comanche and Apache, prac tically all of whose tribal business was in his hands. In this capacity 'he made several visits to Washington, where he always had the con sideration of the government. He also traveled extensively throughout the United States and made a careful study of agricultural methods and of the ways of living among the whites, which 'he copied and taught to his people by example and precept. It was through his earnest and persistent efforts that the Indians of his tribes secured rights of citizenship.