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Quatrefages De Bread

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QUATREFAGES DE BREAD, de Jean Louis Armand de, French naturalist: b. Berthezene, Gard, France, 10 Feb. 1810; d. Paris, France, 12 Jan. 1892. He was graduated from the University of Strass burg and in 1832 settled in Toulouse where he practised medicine and shortly afterward founded the Journal de Midecine et de Chirurgie de Toulouse. In he occu pied the chair of zoology at the University of Toulouse and in the latter year removed to Paris, where he made a special study of inverte brates. In 1850 he was appointed professor of natural history at the Lycee Napoleon, Paris, and in 1855 professor of anthropology at the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, which post he oc cupied until his death. He was elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1852 and was widely known by his anthropological investigations. He was The first expounder of the doctrine of phlebenterism, and was strongly opposed to Darwin's theories. He was the author of many important works on zoology and anthropology, among which are sur les caracteres zoologiques des rongeurs) (1840); !'Organisation des Animaux sans vertebres des cotes de la (1844) ; (Recherches sur le Systeme nerveux, l'Embryogenre, les Organs des Sens, et la Circulation des Anne lides> (1844-50) ; Comparee, Meta morphose de l'Homme et des (1862) ; d'un Naturalists) (1854) ; Naturelle des Anneles Marins et d'Eau Douce) (1865) ; 'Les Polynesians et leurs (1866) ; Rochelle et ses Environs) (1866) ; stir les Progres de l'Anthropologie> (1867) ;

cais) (1870), an attack on Darwinianism; Race Prussienne) (1871) ; Humaine> (1877) ; Etudes stir la Distribution Geographique des Negritos) (1882) ; Fossilcs et Hommes Sauvages' (1884) ; duction a ]'Etude des Races Humaines) (1887 89) ; Transformistes' (1892) ; a series of papers entitled (Etudes sur les Types In ferieurs de l'Embranchement des Anneles); and he also contributed a large number of articles to the Revue des Deux Mondes on the results of his scientific researches along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts and throughout Italy and Sicily.