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Quebec

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QUEBEC, Siege of, in the American Revo lution. After Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold (qq.v.) had captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point (qq.v.), Continental Congress, at Wash ington's earnest solicitation, decided to con qtier Canada as a measure of self-defense. One expedition under Gen. Philip Schuyler (q.v.) was to proceed northward by way of Lake Champlain and another under Arnold through Maine, both converging on Quebec. Schuyler sent Richard Montgomery (q.v.) in advance to reduce Saint John's, about 150 miles north of Ticonderoga, while he returned to Albany to push troops to the front. On 13 Oct. 1775 a small British fort at Chamblet was captured but to offset this Sir Guy Carleton (q.v.), British commander at Montreal, cap tured Allen and a band of $0 men who, without consulting Montgomery, had attempted to sur prise the garrison at Montreal. Allen was sent in irons to England. After an abortive at tempt by Carleton to drive off the invaders, Saint John's surrendered 1 November, where upon Carleton abandoned Montreal and fled to Quebec, Montgomery occupying Montreal 13 November and later following Carleton with about 300 men.

Meanwhile, with 1,050 troops, Arnold had begun his march, reaching Point Levi, opposite Quebec, 9 Nov. 1775. On the 13th he crossed the river with his army, which had keen reduced to 600 troops, occupied the heights near the Plains of Abraham, and attempted to surprise the city, but finding the garrison prepared for defense, retired to await Montgomery's arrival which occurred 1 December. The combined troops numbered 900 and, owing to the rigors of the winter march, were in an emaciated condition. For three weeks the Americans bombarded the city ramparts without effect and Montgomery decided to attempt the reduction by assault. Dividing the force, the com manders made a simultaneous assault from different points on the night of 31 Dec. 1775, Montgomery attacked the lower town but in attempting to storm a blockhouse was killed with several others and his troops retreated, Arnold assaulted the town from his side but his leg was shattered by a ball and the com mand devolved upon Capt. Daniel Morgan

(q.v.) who captured the first and second bar riers. But when Montgomery had been re pulsed, the troops from that quarter attacked Morgan on the rear and finally, after an obsti nate fight, he surrendered, the prisoners num bering 426. Arnold escaped capture and, col lecting his dispirited troops, maintained an im perfect blockade of the city until the spring of 1776, when he was succeeded by Gen. David Wooster (q.v.), who made several ineffectual attempts to capture the city. A large body of British troops arrived from England and the Americans were compelled to fall back on Montreal; finally on 18 June they evacuated the province, going to Crown Point. (See CiLtstri.mx, LAKE, BAME Consult Henry, John J., 'The Siege of Qu ; Parker, Gil bert, 'Old pp. 342-363; Bradley, Ar thur G., 'The Making of Canada,' pp. 89 III ; Carrington, H. B., 'Battles of the Revolu tion,' p. 120 et seq.; Cochnan, John, 'Arnold's Expedition to Quebec); Smith, Justin H., 'Arnold's March from Cambridge to Quebec' ; Coffin, C. C., Province of Quebec and the Early American Revolution); Arnold, I. N., 'Life of Arnold); Thayer, 'Journal of the Expedition to Quebec) (ed. Stone); Sparks, Jared, 'Correspondence of the I; Lossing, B. J., 'Field-Book of the Revo lution,> Vol. I; Force, Peter, 'American Ar chives ) 4th series, Vols. III—VI ; 5th series, Vol. I; 'Massachusetts. Historical Collection.) 2d series, Vol. H, p. 227 et seq.; Sparks, 'Life of Arnold,> Chaps. III—IV • Fisher, S. G., 'Struggle for American Independence,' VoL I, pp. 394-424; Smith, Justin H., 'Our Strug gle for the Fourteenth Colony); Wiley and Rifles, The United States,' Vol. II, pp. 387 397.