QUEBEC, kwe-bek (Fr. ki-1541c), one of the provinces of Canada, the largest in area and second in population, in British North America. Its capital is the city of Quebec.
Ex Boundaries and tent.—It is bounded on the north by Hudson Bay and Strait, on the east by Labrador and the Gulf of Saint Law rence, on the south by the Bay of Chaleurs, New Brunswick and the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and New York and on the west and southwest by the province of Ontario. Its length is nearly 1,000 miles on a due east and west course, its breadth from north to south 1,200 miles and its area 706,834 square miles (15,969 water). The annexation in 1912 of the district of Ungava (354,000 square miles), now called New Quebec, has doubled its area. It thus embraces nearly one-fifth of the total area of the Dominion. The surface of Old Quebec is varied and very picturesque, embracing several ranges of mountains and lofty hills, diversified by numerous rivers, lakes and forests.
Mountains.— The Notre-Dame, or Green, Mountains, a continuation of the Appalachian Range, extend along nearly the whole of the south side of the Saint Lawrence. That chain runs at varying short distances from the river, and, after crossing the frontier and the State of Vermont, joins the Alleghanies. The high est altitude reached in the province is Mount Logan in Matane County (3,708 feet). The Laurentian Mountains skirt the northern bank of the same river and the Ottawa, somewhere near and somewhere at a distance of 10, 15 or 30 miles from the banks; but 130 miles west of Montreal, cross the Ottawa and curve in .he direction of Kingston, whence they run west ward to the shores of lakes Superior and Huron.
Rivers, Lakes and Islands.— Quebec abounds in large rivers, bays and lakes. The Saint Lawrence, 1,900 miles to the head of Lake Saint Louis and navigable for large ocean going ships as far as Montreal, flows through almost the entire length of the province, re ceiving, a short distance above Montreal, the waters of the Ottawa, a river 685 miles in length. That last river is more abundant in
water than the Nile and the Rhine and has large tributaries, the rivers Gatineau and Lievre (Hare), which are over 200 miles long and three others extending over 100 miles to the north. The Saint Maurice, which rises in Lake Oskelaneo and empties into the Saint Lawrence at Three Rivers, is over 325 miles in and is remarkable for its enormous flow of water and its falls. The principal, named Shawenegan, Grand 'Mere, La Tuque, Les Piles, are wonderful water powers, 150,000 horse power now having been developed. Large pulp mills and paper factories have been erected at Grand 'Mere and at Shawenegan, a few years ago and are now the centre of large and pro gressive towns. The rivers Batiscan, Sainte Anne, Jacques Cartier and Montmorency, the last named famous for its falls, also enter the Saint Lawrence from the north. The Sague nay (405 miles) rising in Lake Saint John and flowing into the Saint Lawrence at Tadousac, is one of the most remarkable bodies of water in the world, varying in depth from 100 to 1,000 feet. It is the great outlet of the Lake Saint John, into which flow six long rivers; the princi pal one (the Peribonca) is 400 miles long and navigable for 30 miles. The Richelieu, drain ing Lake Champlain, discharges into the Saint Lawrence from the south and so do the Saint Francis, ChaudiCre, Chateauguay, Yamaska, Etchemin, Becancour and from the north, As sumption, Matawan and du Loup. The rivers of New Quebec include the Big Nottaway, Ru pert, Eastmain, Great Whale and Hamilton rivers. The principal lakes in the province are Melville (1,298 square miles), Mistassini (975), Payne (747), Saint John (350). At three places the Saint Lawrence enlarges and forms lakes, named Saint Francis, the Saint Louis and the Saint Pierre. The principal islands in the river Saint Lawrence are the islands of Montreal, of Orleans, near Anticosti and the Magdalen Islands, situated in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, 50 miles north of Prince Edward Island.