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Queens University

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QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY. Queen's Uni versity, situated at Kingston on Lake Ontario, is one of the largest universities of Canada. It has faculties of arts, applied science, medicine, education and theology; and holds a yearly summer school for instruction in certain sub jects in the arts and education courses. De grees in agriculture are granted, but the final two years in this course must be taken at the Ontario Agricultural College at Guelph. The university extension department provides for instruction extramurally in the arts course, but degrees are not granted unless a portion of the course is taken in attendance.

The university was incorporated by royal chartei on 16 Oct. 1841, and on 2 March 1842 the first session opened with 11 students. Dr. Thomas Liddell, formerly minister of Lady Glenorchy's Church in Edinburgh, was the first principal. The institution was modeled on the democratic lines of the Scottish universities with a view to bringing higher education within the reach of the humblest aspirant. One of the pressing reasons for its establishment was to provide for the education of the Presbyterian clergy in Canada. As no religious tests were imposed on students, the denominational char acter of the institution faded into the back ground, and, although the university was nominally under the aegis of the Presbyterian Church, its real function became that of a great national university, drawing students of all creeds frnm every province of the Do minion. In 1911 the nominal relationship with the Church, which prevented the obtaining- of government assistance, was formally severed by the Presbyterian General Assembly, and in April 1912 constitutional changes effected by an act of the Dominion Parliament made the university undenominational in form as it had long been in reality. The divinity faculty was federally incorporated the same year under the style of Queen's Theological College. It is still controlled by the Presbyterian Church, but its degrees are granted by the university, to which it is affiliated. The history of the early years of Queen's is the story of a continual struggle against straitened circumstances. In 1867 the grant from the provincial government was withdrawn and the crisis came in the following year when the failure of the Com mercial Bank swept away the greater portion of the endowment fund. The situation, how

ever, was faced with determination. Rev. Wil liam Snodgrass, who was then principal, at once began an energetic canvass for a new endowment fund. His efforts reulted in the collection of $113,000 and the crisis was safely passed.

Snodgrass was succeeded in 1877 by George Moaro Grant, a figure of outstanding person ality whose efforts made Queen's a university of the first rank. He was a man of tremendous energy, sound in judgment and utterly fearless in the expression of his opinion on public ques tions. Endowed with the faculty of inspiring his associates with his own enthusiasm he soon attracted to Queen's, mainly from the univer sities of Scotland and England, a number of young men of energy and ability and so im bued them with the °Queen's spirit* of service and self-sacrifice that, despite tempting offers from larger institutions of learning, they re mained with Queen's to work out her and their destiny. Grant's principalship was a period of great expansion. The country was canvassed from the Atlantic to the Pacific for funds, new chairs were founded, new buildings erected and the movement began to sever the existing rela tions with the Presbyterian Church. On his death in 1902 the institution tiad become one of the largest and most influential in Canada, and he himself was ranked among the foremost Canadian publicists.

The university has remained true to the democratic principles on which it was founded, The Scottish plan of allowing students a wide choice of subjects within certain prescribed lim its has been followed. Students and professors are in dose personal touch with one another, the seminary system being adopted in the honor classes. There are no Greek letter or other societies making for class distinctions between the students. Discipline is maintained by the students themselves under sanction of the uni versity authorities, and students' courts having the power to pass sentence of expulsion are held annually in each faculty to discipline offenders.

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