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Queensland

coast, bay, south, miles, range, east and square

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QUEENSLAND, Australia, a state of the commonwealth, prior to 1901 a colony. It oc cupies the northeastern portion of the continent, north of New South Wales and South Aus tralia, and east of the latter. The land bounda ries are mostly artificial, the meridians of 138° and 141° east and the parallels of 29° and 26° south; on the east it has the Pacific, on the north the Gulf of Carpentaria. The most northern part of it, forming York Peninsula, extends to Torres Strait, and a considerable portion is within the tropics. It has an area of about 670,500 square miles, and is divided into 12 large districts (besides smaller divisions) namely, Moreton, Darling Downs, Burnett, Port Curtis, Maranoa, Leichhardt, Kennedy, Mitchell, Warrego, Gregory, Burke and Cook. Besides the capital of the state, Brisbane, the other important towns are Ips wich, Rockhampton, Toowoomba, Townsville, Mackay, Maryborough, Gympie, Bundaberg, Charters Towers, Normanton, Cooktown and Somerset.

Topography.— A series of parallel ranges of mountains traverses the state from north to south near the coast, among the numerous local names being Cook Range, Razorback Range, Dawes Range and Glasshouse Mountains. The Dividing and M'Pherson ranges run from the head of the Dumaresq River in the south eastward to the coast. There is a long range in the interior running east and west and forming a watershed between rivers flowing north and those flowing south. The peak of highest ele vation is Wooroonooran in a spur of the Coast Range known as the Bellenden Ker Range. Its elevation is 5,400 feet. The coast which ex tends for some 2,250 miles, is indented with numerous inlets, bays and harbors, some of the chief being Moreton Bay, Hervey Bay, Port Curtis, Keppel Bay, Broad Sound, Repulse Bay, Halifax Bay, Rockingham Bay, Princess Char Ione Bay. Among the numerous islands along the coast are Stradbroke, Moreton and Bribie, at Moreton Bay; Fraser or Great Sandy Island, Curtis, Whitsunday, Hinchinbrook, all off the east coast; Prince of Wales, Banks, Thursday and others in Torres Strait; and the Wellesley Islands, in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Parallel to the east coast and at no great distance runs the Great Barrier Reef.

Hydrogntphy.— There are four great river systems : (1) Rivers draining to the Pacific Coast, the chief being the Burnett, the Fitzroy, the Burdekin and the Brisbane, the last entering Moreton Bay and having Brisbane, the capital, near its mouth; (2) those draining to the Dar ling, comprising the Macintyre, the Condamine or Balonne and the Warrego; (3) those drain ing to the Gulf of Carpentaria, among them be ing the Flinders, the Leichhardt, the Albert, the Nicholson, the Gilbert, the Mitchell; (4) those flowing into the interior, the chief being the Victoria or Barcoo, which enters Lake Eyre in South Australia as Cooper's Creek, the Herbert, and the Diamantina or Mueller.

Geology and Mineral The Cretaceous systerd is extensively developed in the west and northwest, covering an area of about 200,000 square miles. Tertiary strata occur along the coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria and elsewhere, and occupy a considerable area. The Desert or Eoliati Sandstone, which renders extensive tracts barren and almost uninhabitable, is variously classed as Upper Cretaceous or Tertiary. Palzeozoic formations also cover a large part of the country, especially along the eastern coast. About 14,000 square miles arc Carboniferous, and some 40,000 of Devonian age, and the Cambrian and Silurian also occur. Mesozoic formations older than the Cretaceous are well developed in some places. Granitic rocks are very extensively developed in the cast coast districts and they have been estimated to occupy about 100,000 square miles. More than 30,000 square miles are covered by volcanic rocks. Gold was discovered about 1858, and there are now more than 25 gold-fields in the state, among them being Gympie (near Bris bane), Charters Towers (on the Burdekin), Cape River, Croydon, Cloncurry and Jordan Creek. The production of 1915 is valued at 180.436,391. Other minerals of importance are copper, tin and coal, but antimony, silver, lead, bismuth, manganese, plumbago, asbestos and precious stones are also obtained. Bluestone, limestone, freestone, granite and other rocks arc quarried. The coal production in 1915 amounted to 1,024,273 tons.

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