Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 23 >> Puvis De Chavannes to Radium Therapy >> Qvistgaard


trill, english, vibration, ancient, alphabet and burr

QVISTGAARD, Icvlsegard, J. W. von Rehling; Danish miniature painter: b. Orsholt gaard, parish of Tikjob, 1877. He was gradu ated at the Royal Agricultural College of Copen hagen and in opposition to family prejudice, as a member of the Danish nobility, selected art as a profession. After a brief course of study in Copenhagen under Johan Rohde, he came in 1901 to the United States, where, although prac tically self-taught, his original and superior work soon attracted attention. In 1906 he visited London and Paris, and in 1909 by royal command returned to Copenhagen to make miniatures of the king and queen and other members of the royal family. He returned to New York in 1912 where he has since resided. Special exhibitions of his works were held at Ghent in 1913 and New York in 1914, and have been prominent in the principal miniature ex hibitions of Europe and America. Notable pro ductions include an oil portrait of Theodore Roosevelt, and miniatures of Mrs. Paul Rein hardt, Mr. and Mrs. Charles M. Pratt, and Dr. C. Williamson, the well-known expert on miniatures.

18th letter of the English and other alphabets derived from the alphabet of the Latins. The corre sponding letter of the Greek alphabet, rho, has the form P, p, which is the i of the ancient Phmnician alphabet, with the loop turned to the right; in some very ancient Greek Italiot inscriptions occurs the form R which was adopted by the Romans. R is classed as a liquid or semi-vowel with 1, In and n. Its normal sound is doubtless either the trill produced by vibration of the tip of the tongue raised toward the front palate or the burr, which is produced by a vibration of the lower part of the tongue and the uvula; the trill is heard in the speech of the Latin nations — Italians, French and Spanish; the burr in that of the Germans and Scandinavians. In present English speech the r is sounded with a very faint trill or quite without a trill, save in the pronunciation of the people of certain counties of England, who produce it with a guttural vibration; in the pronunciation of this letter by the Scotch and Irish the trill is dis tinctly heard. When r begins a syllable and

when it follows a consonant — as in race, trap, it i. distinctly a consonant; but in other situa tions, as in nerve, hard, never, it is really a vowel sound. This vowel sound is related to the vocalic r of Sanskrit and the Slavic lan guages. In the faulty or affected pronunciation of certain classes r becomes equivalent to for example, vewy for very. The two liquids or semi-vowels, r and 1, are sounded when the voice is modified by certain positions of the tip of the tongue relatively to the front palate; hence the two letters are freely inter changed between one language and another and within the vocabulary of one language; Spanish azul is English azure; from parabola comes, indirectly, palaver. There are races or peoples who are unable to pronounce the r with either the trill or the burr or c \ Lii with the slight vibration heard in English speech; in such case 1 takes the place of r. Besides the dental or trill r and the vocalic r, the Sanskritic languages and certain others have a cerebral r formed by the tongue-tip against the hard palate. When in Greek a word or syllable begins with r that r is always aspirated, as is the second r when r is doubled, and the ancient Romans represented this aspiration by inserting h after the r; this h we retain, though we recognize no difference between the rh of rhabdomancy and the simple r of rabid. In many English words the r found in their Anglo-Saxon orig inals is dropped; for example, spurcan becomes speak; on the other hand, we insert r in words which in their ancient form were without it; for example. Anglo-Saxon brydpuma becomes bridegroom; and French cartouche becomes cartridge. &stands for aroyaP in many abbre viations. in pharmacy stands for recipet (take). See ALPHABET.

RA, ri. See RE.