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maurus, edited, saint and school

RABANUS, ra-ba'nfis, or HRABANUS, Magnus, Carolingian prelate: b. Mayence, about 776; d. Winkel, near Mayence, 4 Feb. 856. His education was obtained in the cloister school of Fukla, and later at Tour, where his instruc tor, Alcuin, surnamed him Maurus after the legendary founder of the order of Saint Bene dict in France. He took the 'Benedictine vows at an early age, was ordained deacon in 801 and priest in 814. He became the head. of the school at Fulda, which under his guidance be came the most famous monastery school in Germany, and in 822 was elected abbot of the monastery. In 842 he resigned and retired to Petersberg, but came again into public life in 847, when he was elected archbishop of May ence. He was one of the bitterest of the op ponents of the monk Gottschalk, the originator of the predestination controversy in the 9th century. He was one of the most learned men of his time and greatly advanced the spiritual, intellectual, artistic and material interests of his sec. His literary activity was considerable, resulting in commentaries on the Old Testament, on the Gospels of Saint Matthew and Saint John and the Pauline Epistles, devotional books, homilies, hymns, polemics and a Latin-German Glossary to the Bible. He also wrote 'De

Universo) (22 vols.), a sort of encyclopedia. His 'Opera Omnia) are comprised in J. P. Migne's 'Patrologix Cursus Completus' (Vols. CVII—CXII, Paris 1851-52), reprinted from the uncritical edition of G. Colvenerius (Cologne 1626). This edition contains his life by the monk Rudolph, and by Johann Trithemius. His poems have been edited by E. Diimmler in 'Poetae Latini Aevi Caroline (Vol. II, Ber lin 1884). His pedagogical writings have been edited in German by I. Freundgen (Paderborn 1889. A. Knopfler has edited his 'De Institu tione Clericorum Libri Tres' (Munich 1901). Consult Hablitzel, J. B., Maurus' (Freiburg i B. 1906) ; Koehler, 'Rhabanus Maurus and die Schule zu Fulda' (Chemnitz 1870) ; Kunstmann, F., Magnentius Maurus' (Mainz 1841) ; Richter, 'Hrabanus (Malchin 1882) ; Schaff, P., of the Christian Church' (Vol. IV, New York 1885) ; Spengler, T., 'Leben des Heiligen Rha banus Maurits' (Regensburg 1856) ; Tuernau, D., 'Rhabanus Maurus, der Praeceptor Ger mania& (Munich 1900) ; West, A. F. 'Alcuin and the Rise of Christian Schools) (New York 1893).