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RADETZKY, ra-at'sice, Johann Joseph Wenzel Anton Fritz Karl,COUNT, Austrian military officer; b. Trebnitz, Bohemia, 2 Nov. 1766; d. Milan, Italy, 5 Jan. 1858. He joined the Austrian army in 1784, served in the campaigns against the Turks in 1788-89, in Holland and Italy, 1793-96, in various parts of Europe during the later Napoleonic campaigns, became lieutenant field-marshal in 1809 and served with ability at Aspern and Wagram. After the Peace of Schonbrunn he was ap pointed a member of the state council of war. In the war with France he fought at Kulm and Leipzig in 1815, and in 1831 was made com mander of the Austrian troops in Italy. He was created field-marshal in 1836 and in 1848 49 he crushed the revolution in Venice and Milan. He preserved Lombardy to Austria, routed the army of the Piedmontese at Cus tozza and Novara in 1849, concluded a treaty which assured Austrian supremacy in Italy for the time, and governed the Austrian possessions there until 1857 when he was retired after 72 years' service and after having received 46 European decorations. He trained his soldiers to a very high degree of perfection, and, though a very strict disciplinarian, succeeded in be coming the idol, not only of his troops, but of the people at large. He was frank and scrupulously abstained from playing politics. A very extensive anecdotal literature, some of it in the form of fiction, has developed around his character. There are also many poems and songs about his person and deeds; a collection of songs was published as (Radetzky (Aschaffenburg 1851). After his death there

were published (Prague 1858) ; Nachlass Radetzkys' (Stuttgart 1858) ; (Vienna 1892). Consult Duncker, C. von, Buch von Vater Radetzky) (Vienna 1891) ; Gavenda, A. von, and F. de Vuko et Branco, Graf Radetzky' (Prague 1858) ; Hacklander, F., (Augsburg 1851) ; id., (Aus dem Hauptquartiere und Feld leben des Vater Radetzky) (Stuttgart 1854) ; SchOnhalo, C. von, (Erinnerungen eines Oesterreichischen Veteranen) (Stuttgart 1852) • Strack, J.,