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Roses

flowers, rose, species, varieties, hardy, probably, climbing, oil and prob

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ROSES,' flowers of the type-genus Rosa, of the order Rosaceo. The species are exceed ? i ly variable; probably no other genus calling th so wide a range of botanical opinion. Most botanists recognize about 100 species; entham and Hooker estimate the number at less than 40, but Gandoger describes more than 4000 as indigenous to Europe and western Asia. The number of horticultural varieties, crosses and hybrids is probably several times larger than in any other genus; more than 3,000 varieties are listed in French catalogues, and since new ones are added annually the list con sists of active members. The roses are widely distributed in the temperate and cold parts of the northern hemisphere extending in the re spective continents southward to India, Abys sinia and northern Mexico. They are erect, climbing or trailing shrubs, generally prickty stemmed; bear alternate, odd-pinnate, though sometimes simple, leaves , and generally large, showy, in white, yellow or purple flowers born either singly or in terminal corymbs, fol lowed by generally showy berry-hke fruits (hips) which contain several bony akenes. Prob ably no flower has played so important a Role in the garden and in literature. It was prized in the cradle days of the Aryan race and is frequently mentioned in the writings prior to our era. China and Japan, however, seem to have bees less attracted to it than more western races. In very early times the flowers exhibited their characteristic tendency to double; indeed, it is probably the first flower cultivated, in this state, and is now more often thought of in this form perhaps than in its natural single form. The single roses are, however, useful and popu lar in parkplanting.

Except for ornamental purposes roses are of small importance; the only uses made of them are the preserving of the fruits of a few species for food and the manufacture of perfumes, especially attar or otto of roses and rose water from the flowers of some other kinds, princi pally R. alba and R. damascena, which are ex tensively grown in Southeastern Europe, particu larly Bulgaria and adjacent Asia and in south ern France, in which last country the leading rose is the Provence, a hybrid variety of R. cm tifolia. The flowers are either put in stills or are arseerated. In the distilling protess the essen tial oil is extracted by steam and condensed. In each process There is considerable perfume in the water used and in the maceration process, which is most popular in Pranc, this ((rose water)) is the product sought rather than the attar which is regarded as a by-product. These perfumes are among the most important of the world, and it is said that the importations of the attar alone into the United States is greater than the importations of any citrus perfume such as lemon oil, oil of bergamot, etc.

Unquestionably the roses are the most im portant flowers cultivated. They are prized by everycaie who cares for flowers at all, and throughout the civilized world are probably grown in gardens than any other flowers.

(How important they are commercially sp ears by the statistics quoted in the article FLORICULTURE). Ii the United States alone the number of blossoms annual' own for sale has been estimated at 100,111 111 valued at about $6,000,000. Yet the dev- opment of this industry, which now demands the greatest skill of specialists, has sprung from insignificance in 1870; and in 1850 it did not (mist.

From the botanist's standpoint the classi fication of Crepin in his (Printitix Monographia Rosarum,) seems to be one of the most satis factory and is followed by botanists perhaps more frequently than any other; from the gardener's standpoint Barron in the

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