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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 23

Romney
Romney, Rom'n1, George, English Painter : B. Beckside, Near Dalton-in-furness, Lanca Shire, 15 Dec. 1734; D. Kendal, 15 Nov. 1802. His Father Was A Cabinet-maker, And The Boy Learned This Trade, But He Also Taught Himself Drawing And Wood-carving And At 19 Was Ap Prenticed To A Portrait Painter At ...

Romney W
Romney (w. Va.), Engagements At. This Place Was Important As An Outpost Of The Union Troops Guarding The Baltimore And Ohio Railroad And Also As A Base For Operations Up The Valley Of The South Branch Of The Potomac. It Was Held Early In June 1861 By Col. Angus Mcdonald, ...

Romola
Romola, George Eliot's Sole Experiment In Historical Fiction, Was Originally Published As A Serial In The Cornhill Magazine Fromjuly 1862 To August 1863. Hitherto George Eliot Had Taken The Substance Of Her Novels From Memories Of English Life In The Midland Coun Ties Where She Had Grown Up And Passed ...

Romulus
Romulus, Rom'ii-lfis, Mythical Founder H And First King Of Rome. Lie Is Said To Have Been The Son Of Sylvia, Generally, But Incor Rectly Called Rhea Silvia, Daughter Of Numitor, King Of Alba, And One Of The Priestesses Of Vesta. By The God Mars. She Became The Mother Of Male ...

Ronsard
Ronsard, Pierre De, Pe-ir De Ron-sir, French Poet: B. Chateau De La Poissonniere, Vendomois, 11 Sept. 1524; D. Saint Cosme Near Tours, 27 Dec. 1585. He Entered As Page The Service Of The Dauphin, And Then Of The Duc D'orlians, Second Son Of The King. In 1538 He Accompanied James ...

Roof
Roof, The Covering Of A Building By Which The Interior Secures Protection. In Ordinary Ac Ceptation The Term Includes The Covering And The Supporting Framework, Though In Carpentry The Term Is Applied Only To The Framework. Roofs Are Broadly Distinguished As Flat Or Sloping. The Former Were Used Almost Exclusively ...

Roosevelt
Roosevelt, Theodore,' American Thor, Naturalist, Explorer, Statesman And Dier, And 26th President Of The United States: B. New York City, -27 Oct. 1858; D. Sagamore Hill, N. Y., 6 Jan. 1919. He Was Born At No. 28 East 20th Street, New 'york His Father (of The Same Name) Was A ...

Roosevelt Dam
Roosevelt Dam, The Greatest Engi Neering Work In Connection With The Salt River Irrigation Project In Arizona, Which Ranks First Among The Works Of The United States Reclama Tion Service, Was Completed In 1910. This Won Derful Structure Of Sandstone And Cement, Cost Ing Nearly $9,000,000, Rises 284 Feet Above ...

Roosevelt And The Progres
Roosevelt And The Progres Sive Party. The Progressive Movement In The Republican Party, Like Its Counterpart In The Democratic Party, Laid Emphasis On The Need Of Freeing Government, Both State And Federal, From The Domination Of Special Interests And The Prostitution Of Government To Serve The Needs Of A Small ...

Root
Root, Root Or Rut, Elihu, American Law Yer And Statesman: B. Clinton, N. Y., 15 Feb. 1845. He Was Graduated At Hamilton College In 1864, And At The New York University Law School In 1867. In The Latter Year He Was Admitted To The Bar And Entered Upon The Prac ...

Root_2
Root, That Plant Part Which Normally Penetrates The Soil, Absorbs Water And Chemicals In Solution, For Nutritive Purposes, Forces It Through The Plant And Also Acts As An Anchor And Support. Roots, However, In Modified Forms, May Draw Nutriment From Other Vegeta Tion Or From The Air, And May Even ...

Rorqual
Rorqual, Ror'qwal, A Name Of Scandi Navian Origin, Signifying A Whale Having Longi Tudinal Furrows On The Belly. As Generally Em Ployed It Comprises The Finback, Sulphurbottom And Humpback Whales, Or The Subfamily Bakenopterids, Exclusive Of The Genus Rhachta Ne.ctes. The Furrows Extend To The Throat, Where They Are Closely ...

Rosa
Rosa, Francisco De Paula Martinez De La, Spanish Poet, Novelist, Dramatist And States Man: B. Granada, 10 March 17:: ; D. Madrid, 7 Feb. 1862. Graduating In Law From The Uni Versity Of Granada He Became Lecturer On Ethics At His Alma Mater, While Still In His 'teens. He Was ...

Rosa_2
Rosa, Ro'sa, Salvatore Or Salvator, Ital Ian Painter: B. Renella, Near Naples, 20 June 1615; D. Rome, 15 March 1673. His Eldest Sister Having Married Francesco Fracanzano, A Painter, Salvator From Him Acquired A Taste For Art. He Then Became A Pupil Of Falcone And Ribera (q.v.); But His Taste ...

Rosas
Rosas, Juan Manuel De, Hoo-an' 61 Di Ro'sis, Argentine Dictator: B. Buenos Aires, 30 March 1793; D. Near Southampton, England, 14 March 1,877. He Was Descended From A Noble Family Of Spain And First Came Into Pub Lic Notice As Leader Of The Republicans Against The Aristocratic Party Of The ...

Rose In Art And
Rose In Art And Symbolism, The. The Bible Hut Twice Mentions The Rose, And Modern Criticism Tends To Prove That In Both Cases It Is A Mistranslation And Refers To Some Other Growth. In The Song Of Solomon The °rose Of Sharon" Is Mentioned. In Histori Cal Reference We Find ...

Rosebery
Rosebery Reiz'ber-1, Archibald Philip Primrose, 5fla Earl Of, English Statesman And Author: B. London. 7 May 1847. He Was Edu Cated At Eton And Oxford; Became Earl Of Rosebery In 1868; As A Member Of The House Of Lords Entered His Political Career Without The Advantage Of A Training In ...

Rosecrans
Rosecrans, Ro're-kranz, Starke, American Soldier: B. Kingston, Ohio, 6 Sept. 1819; D. Near Redondo, Cal., 11 March 1898. He Was Graduated At West Point, Enter Ing The Army As 2d Lieutenant Of Engineers In 1842, But In 1844 Returned To West Point As Assistant Professor Of Engineering. From 1847 To ...

Roses
Roses, Wars Of The, The Name Given To The Protracted Struggle Between The Houses Of Lancaster And York For Possession Of The Eng Lish Throne, In The Second Half Of The 15th Cen Tury. The Appellation Was Derived From The Badges Adopted By The Contending Parties, A White Rose By ...

Roses
Roses,' Flowers Of The Type-genus Rosa, Of The Order Rosaceo. The Species Are Exceed ? I Ly Variable; Probably No Other Genus Calling Th So Wide A Range Of Botanical Opinion. Most Botanists Recognize About 100 Species; Entham And Hooker Estimate The Number At Less Than 40, But Gandoger Describes ...

Rosetti
Ros$etti, Dante Gabriel, English Poet And Painter: B. London, 12 May 1828; D. Berch Ington, 10 April 1882. His Full Name Was Ga Briel Charles Dante, But For Literary Purposes He Rearranged It In The Form By Which He Is Now Remembered. He Was One Of Four Children, All Of ...

Rosmini
Rosmini, Antonio Rosmini Serbati, Italian Philosopher: B. Roveredo In The Italian Tyrol, 25 March 1797; D. Stresa, 1 July 1855. He Began The Course Of Studies For The Priesthood At Padua In 1817, And Was Ordained In 1821. He Became Deeply Versed In Philosophy, Ancient And Modern, And Revolved In ...

Ross
Ross, William Potter, Cherokee Indian Leader: B. At The Foot Of Lookout Mountain, Tenn., 28 Aug. 1820 D. Fort Gibson, 20 July 1891. His Father Was A Native Of Scotland And His Mother Was A Sister Of John Ross, Who Was Principal Chief Of The Cherokee Nation From 1828 To ...

Ross Family
Ross Family, The, Prominent In The Creation Of The United States Flag. The 3rd Continental Congress, 14 June 1777 Adopted The Report Of Gen. George Washington, Robert Morris And George Ross, And Declared That The National Flag Of The United States Shall Be, Of Stars And Stripes, Red, White And ...

Rosse
Rosse, Rds, William Parsons, 3d Earl Of, British Astronomer: B. York, 17 June 1800; D. Monkstown, Ireland, Oct. 1867. He Was Educated At Dublin And At Magdalen College, Oxford, Where He Was Graduated In 1822. He Was Member Of Parliament For King's County From 1823 To 1834, And Succeeded His ...

Rossini
Rossini, Gioachimo Antonio, Jo-a-ice' Mo R8s-se'ne, Italian Composer: B. Pesaro, 29 Feb. 1792; D. Passy, Near Paris, 13 Nov. 1868. He Was Born Of Poor Parents, And 'when Only 10 Was Able To Support His Mother By Singing Solos In, Church. He Also Took The Part Of Adolfo In Paer's ...

Rostand
Rostand, Re/stall, Edmond, French Poet And Playwright: B. Marseilles, 1 April 1868; D. 2 Dec. 1918. He Obtained His Education At The Marseilles 1.„ycie And The College Stanislas Of Paris, And In 1891 Was Admitted To The Practice Of Law. He First Came Into Prominence As An Author In 1888, ...

Rotary Steam Engine
Rotary Steam Engine, A Type Of Engines In Which The Pistons Rotate Within The Cylinder, Or The Cylinder Upon The Pistons, Thus Giving A Continuous Rotary Motion And Eliminat Ing The Loss Of Power Consequent To The Neces Sary Change In The Direction Of Motion Of A I Piston Working ...

Rotation Of Crops
Rotation Of Crops, The Order In Which Crops Are Grown During A Series Of Years On The Same Land. The Advantages Of This Prac Tice Are: (1) All Plants Tend To Exhaust The Soil, But In Different Degrees, Hence A Rotation Tends To Maintain A Balance. Thus At The Rotharnsted ...

Rothschild
Rothschild, Raths'child (ger. Roe Shift). The Famous European Financial House Known As Rothschild Was Founded By Mayer Anselm Rothschild: B. Frankfort-on-the-main 1943; D. 19 Sept. 1812. He Was Of Jewish Parentage, And Was Destiited For The Priesthood, But Found Commercial Pursuits More To His Lik Ing, And Engaged In Trading, ...

Rouen
Rouen, Roo-86, France, Chief Town Of The Department Of Seine-inferieure, Situated On The Right Bank Of The Seine, 87 Miles Southwest Of Paris, Ranks Next To Lyons As A Manufacturing City, And Is One Of The Most Attractive Provin Cial Towns Of The Republic. Rouen Possesses Much Interest In Its ...

Rough Leg
Rough-leg, A Buzrzard-hawk Of The Genus Archibuteo, Especially A. Lagopus, So Called Because Feathered Down To The Toes. It Is Known Throughout The Northern Regions Of Both Continents, And Is Typically Whitish, Streaked With Rust-red, But The American Form Best Known Is A Melanotic Variety (a. Lagopus Sancti-johannis), Which Frequents ...

Roundworms
Roundworms, A Common Or Semi Scientific Designation For Certain Slender Cylindri Cal Or Spindle-shaped Worms Mostly Parasitic. The Term Is Sometimes Applied To The *ri• Nentathelminthes (q.v.) And Again Restricted To The Class Nematoda (q.v.), Also Called The True Roundworms- Some Of The Species Included In These Subdivisions Are Very ...

Rouoon Macquart
Rouoon-macquart, Roo-geni Ma-kar, Les, A Series Of 20 Novels By Emile Zola, Relat Ing The History Of A Family Under The Second Empire And Published In 1871-93. The Novels Were Intended To Form A Scientific Study Of Heredity As Well As A Photograph Of French Social Life. The Series Begins ...

Rousseau
Rousseau, Pierre Etienne Theodore, French Painter: B. Paris, 15 April 1812; D. Bar Bizon, Neat Fontainebleau, 22 Dec. 1867. He Was A Pupil Of Remond (1826) And Of Lethiere, But Quickly Parted Company With All Current Theories Of Art, And Showed Himself An Original Interpreter Of Nature, While He Fought ...

Rousseau
Rousseau, Jean-jacques, In Point Of In-, Fluence The Most Striking Figure In Modern French Philosophy And Literature: B. Geneva, 28 June 1712; D. Ermenonville, 2 1778: His Mother Died At His Birth, So That In His Own Characteristic Phrase His Birth Was The First Of His Misfortunes. His Father Was ...

Rousseaus Confessions
Rousseau's Confessions. Jean Jacques Rousseau. For Us, Who Lived Among Scientific Ideas Familiarly Applied, The Name Of Rousseau Has Lost Its Power To Shock. Most Of Us Have Forgotten That To The Eyes Of The 18th Century Mankind Appeared In The Image Of His Maker, Without Body, Parts Or Passions, ...

Rowing
Rowing, The Propelling Of Floating Rafts, Boats Or Barges By Means Of Oars, Is The Most Ancient Of All Methods Of Traveling By Water. As Evidenced By Some Of The Oldest Egyptian Carvings Rowing Was A Well-established Prac Tice Before History Began To Be Written And Re Mained The Chief ...

Rowing
Rowing, Technics Of. Rowing Is The Method Of Propelling A Boat By The Use Of Oars. It Consists Of Two Parts — The Stroke And The Recovery, Which Are Executed By A Series Of Complex Motions Designed To Apply A Maximum Of Available Motive Energy In Urging The Boat Through ...

Royal Arcanum
Royal Arcanum, The, A Fraternal And Beneficial Society Organized, 23 June 1877 At Boston, Mass., By Dr. Darius Wilson And John Andrew Cummings. The Original Council In Boston Had But Nine Members. Other Coun Cils Were Soon Established In The Same City And The Order Spread Rapidly Throughout The New ...

Royal Naval College Op
Royal Naval College Op Can Ada, An Institution For Training Cadets For The Navy. Entrance Examinations Are Held In May At The Appointed Centres Of The Civil Service Commission. The Civil Service Commission, Ottawa, Furnishes On Application Blank Forms For Admission And Information Of Requirements And Dates And Places Of ...

Royal Observatory
Royal Observatory, Greenwich. England, The Famous Observatory Established By Order Of Charles Ii, Who Appointed John Astronomical Observer 4 March 1675 At A Salary Of F100 ($500), For Which He Was Also To Instruct Two Boys From Christ's Hos Pital. The First Observation Was Made 19 Sept 1675. The Observatory ...

Royce
Royce, Josiah, American Philosopher And Educator: H. Grass Valley, Nevada County, Cal., 20 Nov. 1855; D. Cambridge, Mass., 14 Sept. 1916. Graduated (1875) At The University Of California, He Studied Also At Leipzig And Gottingen (1876) And The Johns Hopkins Uni Versity (1877-78), And In 1878-82 Was Instructor In English ...

Roycrofters
Roycrofters, The, The Name Applied To A Colony Of Artisans And Artists Living At East Aurora, Erie County, N. Y. The Founder Of The Roycroft Colony Was Elbert Hubbard (q.v.), Who In 1893 Established Here A Printing Establishment And A Monthly Period Called The Philistine. Hubbard, Imbued With A Socialistic ...

Rubaiyat
Rubaiyat (roo-bi-yile) Of Omar Khayyam. The Collection Of Quatrains Known As The •rubilyit Of Omar Khayyam,* Owes Its Fame Less To Its Author, The Astronomer Poet Of Persia, Than To Its Translator Or Adapter, Edward Fitzgerald, Whose Version Has Become One Of The Monuments Of English Literature, And The; Inspiration ...

Rubber
Rubber, An Elastic, Resilient Substance De Rived From Numerous Trees And Vines Found Scattered Widely Over The Tropics. Its Proper Name Is Caoutchouc And It Is Classified In The Hydro-carbon Family; The Chemically Pure Product Being Described By The Symbols H". Commercially Pure Rubber, However, Contains Several Other Things Such ...

Rubber Industry In The
Rubber Industry In The United States. The Special Census Of Manufactures For The Year 1914 Reported The Number Of Es Tablishments In The United States Engaged In The Rubber Industry As 342. Of These, Seven Were Making Rubber Belting; 11 Making Hose; 23 Making Boots And Shoes, And 301 In ...

Rubber Tires
Rubber Tires. The Earliest Mention Of Rubber Tires In Literature Is Contained In A Work By Thomas Hancock Published In 1856, In Which He Suggests The Use Of Rubber Tires On Vehicles For The Purpose Of Avoiding Vibra Tion. Prior To This, However, A Patent For An Elastic Tire Had ...

Rubens
Rubens, Roo'benz, Peter Paul, Flemish Painter : B. Siegen, Westphalia, 29 June 1577; D. Antwerp, 30 May 1640. He Was (or, Accord Ing To Some, At Cologne) Of Good Citizen Family Who Had Gone From Antwerp To Cologne On Ac Count Of Religious Oppression, And Who, While These, Had Become ...

Rubinstein
Rubinstein, Roo'bin-stin, Anton Gregor, Russian Composer And Pianist: B. Wechwotynez, 28 Nov. 1829; D. 20 Nov. 1894. His Parents Were Jewish And Soon After His Birth Removed To Moscow. His Mother, Being A Good Musician Was His First Teacher ; He Next Studied With Vilioing, A Frenchman, And At Nine ...

Rubruquis
Rubruquis, Rii'bru'kes, Or De Ruys Broek, Rubrouck, Rysbruck, Friar William Of, Mediaeval Traveler And Author: B. Rubrouck, French Flanders, About 1215; D. About 1270. He Was A Contemporary And Brother Franciscan Of Roger Bacon, But Little Is Known Of Him Except What Can Be Culled From His Own Writings And ...

Ruby
Ruby, The Rich Red, Transparent Variety Of Corundum, Having A Hardness" Of Nine And A Specific Gravity Of Four. The Name Is Some Tunes Used For Other Red Gems (see Ruby Spinel), And Improperly For Richly Colored Gar Nets, Of The Variety Pyrope. The Stones Called Cape Rubies And Arizona ...

Ruckstuhl
. Ruckstuhl, Rfik'stool, Fred Welling Ton, American Sculptor: B. Breitenbach, Alsace, 22 May 1853. At Two He Was Brought To America By His Parents Who Settled In Saint Louis, Mo. His Art Studies Were Begun In 1883 In Paris. His First Exhibit, A Life Size Nude Figure Called 'evening,' Won ...

Rudder Grange
Rudder Grange, One Of The Best Known And Most Humorous Of The Novels Of Frank R. Stockton. It Appeared In Scrilmees Monthly In 1874; And Was Followed By The 'girl At Rudder Grange) In 1875 And The Rudder Grange,' 'camping Out At Rudder Grange) And 'pomona Takes The Helm At ...

Rudolf I
Rudolf I, Roo'd61f, Emperor Of Germany, Founder Of The Imperial House Of Austria: B. 1 May 1218; D. Germersheim, 15 July 1291. He Was The Eldest Son Of Albert Iv, Gault Of Haps Burg And Laudgrave Of Alsace, Was Brought Up In The Court And Camp Of The Emperor Erick ...

Rudolf Ii
Rudolf Ii, Holy Roman Emperor: B. Vienna, 18 July 1552; D. Prague, 20 Jan. 1612. He Was Educated In Spain, And Before The Death Of His Father, Maximilian Ii, Was Crowned King Of Hungary In 1572, King Of Bohemia In 1575, The Same Year Being Also Crowned At Ratisbon As ...

Rueda
Rueda, Roo-d'da, Lope De, Spanish Actor And Dramatist: B. Seville, In The Early Part Of The 16th Century D Before 1567. He Was A Gold-beater By T.,_ Ie; But Became Of The Most • Successful Actors 'oft His Day. Re- Is Credited :with Being To •welte Popular' Spaniel! Drama: And ...

Ruggles
Ruggles, Timothy, American Lawyer, Politician And Loyalist: B. Rochester, Mass., 20 Oct. 1711; D. Wilmot, Nova Scotia, 4 Aug 1795. He Was Graduated From Harvard In 1732, Represented Rochester In The General Court In 1736, Opened A Law Office At Sandwich, Barnstable County, And Was Connected With Many Cases Of ...

Rugs
Rugs, Roo'ge, Arnold, German Socialist: B. Bergen, Prussia, 13 Sept. 1802; D. Brighton, England, 31 Dec. 1880. He Was Educated At Heidelberg, Jena And The University Of Halle, Where In 1830 He Became A Professor. His First Literary Production Was A Translation Of Sopho Des' ((edipus In Kolonos) (1830). He ...

Rugs
Rugs, Oriental. History.—the Origin Of The Floor Coverings, Popularly Known As Oriental Rugs, Is A Matter Of Tradition And, Therefore, Purely Suppositional, For The Fragmentary Record Of The Ancients, On This Subject, Is Casual And Exceedingly Incomplete. Undoubtedly, However, Along With The Slow Evolution Of Human Progress, Rugs, In Some ...

Rugs_2
Rugs, Weaving Of. The .cot Unerce In Oriental Rugs In The United States, Especially Those From Persia„ Russia And Turkey, Is Very Considerable. A Few Came From India And China, And Some Are Woven In Afghanistan And Teluchistan. While There Is A Large Production Of Rugs Of Various Kinds In ...

Ruiz
Ruiz, Roo-eth, Juan, Spanish Poet: B. About 1283; D. 1350. He Is Frequently Called The Arch Priest Of Hita. Very Little Is Known Of His Life; And The Time And Place Of His Birth Are Uncer Tain, Guadalajara And Alcolo. (de Henares) Both Claiming To Be The Latter; For Honor ...

Rumania
Rumania, Roo-man'tif-a, Or Rou Mania, A Kingdom Of Southeastern Europe, Bounded By Hungary, Ukraine, The Black Sea, Bulgaria And Jugoslavia. Area, 50,720 Square Miles. It Comprised The Provinces Of Moldavia' And Wallachia, Prior To 23 Dec. 1861, Danubian Principalities. The Principal Towns Are Buchar Est, The Capital, Jassy, Galatz, Braila, ...

Rumanian Language
Rumanian Language, The Origin Of The Rumanian Language Dates From The 2d Century, When The Roman Colonies Settled Them Selves On The Left Bank Of The Lower Danube,, By Its Grammar And Vocabulary This Language Belongs To The Group Of The Romance Languagps, And It Is Spoken To-day By The ...

Rumanian Literature
Rumanian Literature. To Get A Clear Idea Of Rumanian (or Properly Daco Rumanian) Literature, It Will Be Convenient To Divide It Into Oral And Written. The First Of These Sections Includes The Interesting Dome (lyric Songs), Balade (epic Songs), Pore (dance Songs), Collude (carols), Basme (fairy Tales), Snoave (anecdotes), Vorbe ...

Rumford
Rumford, Me., Town Of Oxford County, On The Androscoggin River And On The Maine Central Railroad, 57 Miles North Of Lewiston. Rumford Falls, "new England's Niagara,* Has Been Utilized For One Of The Greatest Power Plants In The East, Including A Hydroelectric Station Completed 1918, Developing A Capacity Of 30,000 ...

Ruminants
Ruminants, Herbivorous Split-hoofed Animals, Characterized Especially By Chewing The Cud; They Include The Camels And Llamas, Giraffes, Deer, Pronghorns, Antelopes, Sheep, Goats And Ox-tribe And Thus Nearly All The Mammals Most Economically Important To Man. All These, Except The Camels And Giraffes, Are Represented On The Continent Of North America, ...

Rump Parliament
Rump Parliament, In English His Tory A Name By Which The Remnant Of The Long Parliament Was Known After The Expulsion Of The Majority Of Its Members By The Army Of Cromwell, 6 Dec. 1648, Until The Latter's Recon Vention After Cromwell's Death. It Having Been Decided By A Majority ...