RUGS, roo'ge, Arnold, German Socialist: b. Bergen, Prussia, 13 Sept. 1802; d. Brighton, England, 31 Dec. 1880. He was educated at Heidelberg, Jena and the University of Halle, where in 1830 he became a professor. His first literary production was a translation of Sopho des' ((Edipus in Kolonos) (1830). He was later identified with the founding of the (Hal- • lesche Jahrbficher) and became known as aft advocate of radical doctrines. In 1843 he went' to Paris where he was associated with Karl Marx and there published his (Zwei Jahre in In 1847 he started a journal, Die Re in Berlin. Accused of complicity in the Revolution of 1848, he fled to England. He was there identified with Mazzini and Ledru Rollin in their efforts to organize a democratic league for the establishment of political equality throughout the world. The movement to unite the provinces of Germany in 1866-70 was strengthened by his sympathy and his services in this cause were recognized by the German Empire. He pubfished (Political Pictures)
(1848) ; (Our (1850); (In Former' Times) (1862-67) ;• and a 'Manifesto of the German People) (1866).
Rt.tGEN, an island belongiag to Germany in the Baltic Sea, area, 377 miles. The coast has many indentations: cm the norta,st the, island terminates in a chalk cliff, nearly perpendicular and about 400 feet above the water. Peculiarly shaped boulders am found on different parts of the island. Ac cording to Tacitus, the ancient Germanic god dess Hertha (Earth) was worshipped here at Hertha Lake. The soil is fertile; agriculture, stockraising and fishing are the chief occupa tions. The coast villages are popular sea-bath ing resorts. Bergen is the capital. Pop 4600.