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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25

Africa Protecto Rate
Africa Protecto Rate, The Territory Known Before The Euro Pean War As German South-west Africa. Its Official Designation Became "the Protectorate Of South-west Africa In Military Occupation Of The Union Forces," So Named After Its Conquest By South African Forces Under General Botha On 15 July 1915. The Territory Was ...

Athletic Sports
Athletic Sports. The Maintaining And Enforcing Of Clear-cut Amateur Conditions Surrounding The Entries And Contests Of The Various Athletic Clubs, And The Elimination Of Professionals Surreptitiously Get Ting Into The Ranks, Necessitated A Unification Of Clubs And Setting Up Of Jurisdiction Centred In Some Body. In England The Amateur Athletic ...

Aviation Records
Aviation Records. The Permanent Success Of The Wright Brothers' Invention Was Proven In 1905 By Long Distance Flights In England, France And Ger Many, And The Armies Of These Powers Grasped The Merits Of The Revolutionary Discovery Of Flight In Heavier-than-air Machines For War Purposes. The Governments Aided Advance Ment ...

Baron Von
Baron Von, Prussian Soldier And American Gen Eral: B. Magdburg, Prussia, 15 Nov. 1730; D. Steuben, Oneida County, N. Y., 28 Nov. 1794. Before Coming To America He Had Attained The Rank Of Lieutenant-general In The Prussian Army, And Had Won Distinction In The .seven Years' War. At Its Close ...

Beet Sugar
Beet Sugar. Sugar Was Discovered In The Ordinary Beet By Margraff, A Member Of The Berlin Academy Of Science, In 1747, Hut The Sugar Content Was Very Small, Being From 2 Per Cent To 4 Per Cent. About Half A Century Later, Karl Franz Archard Undertook The Extraction Of Sugar ...

Billiards And Pool
Billiards And Pool. These Are Probably The Most Internationally Popular Indoor Games. Already Mentioned In The 16th Century Billiards Has Retained Its Hold Among Most Civilized Nations. Best Billiard Record Runs. Professional: 312 At 18.2, Calvin Demarest, Chicago, 1910; 155 At 18.1, Willie Hoppe, Philadelphia, 1910; 246 At 182, Maurice ...

Boxing Records
Boxing Records. Professional Champions. Heavyweights 158 Lbs.): John L. Sullivan, 1890-92; Ames J. Corbett, 1892-97; Robert Fitzsimmons, 897-99; James J. Jeffries, 1899-1910; Jack Johnson, 1910-15; Jess Willard, 1915-19; Jack Dempsey, 1919-. Lbs.): Robert Fitzsimmons, 1890-97; Tommy Ryan, 1897-1907; Stanley Ketchel, 1907-08; Billy Papke And Stanley Ketchel, 1908; Stanley Ketchel, 1908-10; ...

Cane Sugar
Cane Sugar. Historical.— Although Sugarcane (saccha Rum Oflicinarum) Is Now Cultivated In All Tropi Cal And Semi-tropical Countries, Its Origin And That Of Its Manufacture Into Sugar Date Back,to The Remotest Antiquity And Both Remain Some What In Obscurity. However The Majority Of Evidence Traces Sugarcane To India As The ...

Carl Vandoren Or
Carl Vandoren. Or A Large Bunting (plectrophenax Nivalis), Com Mon In The Northern Regions Of Both Hemi Spheres, And Visiting The United States And Cen Tral Europe In Flocks During The Winter. They Haunt The Open, Treeless Wilds, And Place Their Nests On The Ground Or In The Crevice Of ...

Cases
Cases Arose Out Of Laws Passed In 1869 By The Legislature Of The State Of Louisiana In An Act Intended To Protect The Public Health In The City Of New Orleans And To That End Incorporating The Crescent City Live Stock Landing And Slaughter-house Com Pany. The Act Gives To ...

Development And Equipment Submarines
Submarines: Their History, Development And Equipment. The Aerial Flight Of The Bird And The Subaqueous Navigation Of The Fish Were Always Wished-for And Dreamed-of Activities Of Human Ambition. Science Achieved Both Performances Between The Years 1900 And 1906, When The Actions Of The Denizens Of The Air And Sea Were ...

Electrical Processes Of Manufacture
Steel, Electrical Processes Of Manufacture. Electrometallurgical Processes For The Manufacture Of Pig Iron, Steel And Ferroalloys, Have Received Profound Attention From A Commercial Point Of View During The Years Of This Century. In Fact, A Commercial Production Of Electric Steels Seems To Coincide Almost Exactly With The Opening Of The ...

Equation Sin
Equation. Sin, Any Wilful Thought, Word, Deed Or Omission Contrary To The Law Of God. This Definition Does Not Cover Original Sin (q.v.), Save In So Far As It Was Adam's Own Trans Gression: In Distinction From Original Sin All Other' Sins Are Called Actual Sins. Offenses Against Purely Human ...

Evolution Of Steel Making
Steel, Evolution Of Steel Making Processes. In Prehistoric Times The Earth's Inhabitants Fashioned Their Im Plements From Flint. After A Time, As The Result Of Observation Or Chance, Primi Tive Men Discovered That Metals, Such As Copper And Lead, Could Be Obtained From Certain Earths Or Ores, And It Was ...

Ferry Maryland Campaign Of
Ferry; Maryland Campaign Of September 1862). Lee Followed Jackson Through Turner's Gap; D. H. Hill's Division Was Left At Boons Boro, To Support Stuart's Cavalry, Which Was To Hold Turner's Gap And Watch Mcclellan ; And With The Divisions Of D. R. Jones And J. B. Hood And The Reserve ...

Gine
Gine) Perfect For Surface Propulsion, Its Low Cost Of Running Also Being Much In Its Favor. A Development Of 5,000 Horse Power By 1915 Was A Great Advance Over Two- And Four-cycle Engines. The Fiat Firm Advanced The High .speed Diesel Greatly And Britain Gradually Took Up The Work; All ...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Steel, Heat Treatment Of. The Physical Structure Of Steel May And Does Vary To A Marked Degree According To The Heat Treatment That It Has Undergone; And That The Strength, Toughness And General Usefulness Of A Struc Tural Member Of Steel May Be Largely Controlled By The Way In Which ...

Iii The Commercial Revolution
Iii. The Commercial Revolution And The Resulting Social Reform Movements. While, As Professor Shepherd Has Insisted, There Is Need Of A Greater Preciseness Of Definition In Dealing With The Commercial Revo Lution As A Phase In Modern History, It Will Suffice For The Purposes Of This Survey To Regard It ...

Il Social Reform Movements
Il Social Reform Movements Before Yrs Commercial Revolution. Though It Was Not The First Social Reform Program, The Earliest Scheme For Social Recon Struction Which Has Remained A Classic Through The Ages Was The 'republic' Of Plato. Here Was Proposed A Society Resting Fundamentally Upon A Social Division Of Labor, ...

Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution. It Will Suffice At This Place To Describe It As That Great Economic Trans Formation Which Introduced The Mechanical Era Of Manufacturing And The Improited Motive Power For Transportation And The Communica Tion Of Intelligence, Together With The Great Social, Political And Intellectual Changes Which Accompanied The Economic ...

Industries
Industries. The Improvements In Recent Years In The Sul Phide Smelting Have Consisted In The Adoption Of Mechanical Roasters, The Arrangement Of The Furnaces So That The Product Can Be Trans Ferred From One Department To Another With Minimum Loss Of Heat And With The Least Pos Sible Handling, And ...

Jiacooh
Jiacooh, Are Usually Associated With Stearic A In These Sources. Animal Fat Contains The Ore Of Esters Of All Three Acids In Varying Quanti 'es, Depending Upon The Nature Of The Fat. Shea-bu Er, A Vegetable Fat Obtained In West Africa, C Tains The Glycerol Esters Of Stearic And Oleic ...

L Suluric Acid
L Sul:uric Acid, In Chemistry, Mono Ethyl Phate, Cal,.fiso., Or Acid Sulphate Of Ethyl. Consists Of Sulphuric Acid, For One Of Whoseplaceable Hydrogen Atoms The Organic Radica!thyl," C,h,, Has Been Substituted. Sul Phovu Acid May Be Prepared By Heating A Mixtusf Equal Parts Of Strong Sulphuric Acid And Ante Alcohol ...

Language Spanish Literature
Language; Spanish Literature. Spanish Educational System.— The Pres Ent Spanish School System Dates From 1900. The Centres Of Education Are Divided Into Three Categories: Primary, Secondary, Or Preparatory, And Superior, Or University. The First Is Sup Plied By The Municipalities Or By Licensed Pri Vate Schools; The Second Is Directly ...

Manufacture Of Cruci Ble
Steel, Manufacture Of Cruci Ble. Crucible Steel Is So Called Because The Ingredients From Which It Is Made Are Melted In Crucibles Or Pots. The Name To Day Is Almost Synonymous With "tool Steel"— Meaning A Steel Containing At Least One Half Per Cent Of Carbon, Which Will, There Fore ...

Mass And Time Standards
Standards Of Length, Mass And Time. Standards Of Length, Mass And Time Are The Fundamental Units Used Alike In The Business Of Daily Affairs And In The Measure Ments And Calculations Of Physical Science. The Most Important Standards Of Length Now Used Are The British Yard And The International Prototype ...

N Y Stony Point
Stony Point, N. Y., Town In Rockland County, On The West Bank Of The Hudson, And On The New Jersey And. New York, The New York, Ohio And Western And The West Shore Railroads, 35 Miles North Of New York City. At This Point Is The Rocky Promontory From Which ...

New York
New York (sec. I, Art. 9).—" The Legislature Shall Pro Vide For The Maintenance And Support Of A System Of Free Common Schools, Wherein All The Children Of This State May Be Educated." It Must Not Be Inferred That, Because The National Government Has Not Assumed Direction And Control Of ...

Open Hearth Manufac Ture
Steel, Open Hearth Manufac Ture. The Process Of Producing Steel Of This Class Derives Its Name From The Type Of Furnace Used Open Hearth. In European Practice The Process Is Known As The Siemens Martin, Receiving Its Name Because Of Being Originated, Developed And Perfected By Two Eminent And Early ...

Peninsular War
Peninsular War. After Pampeluna Had Fallen, 31 Oct. 1813, No French Soldier Was Left On The Spanish Terri Tory Except In Barcelona And Some Other Places In Catalonia. Wellington Attacked The Enemy On The Fortified Banks Of The Nivelle 10 No Vember And Soult Retreated Into The Camp Of Bayonne. ...

Railroad Speeds
Railroad Speeds. As Railroading Is Not A Sport, Judges Have Not Verified The Records We Have Of The Fastest Attainments Of Locomotives And Trains. The Following Are Generally Accepted As The Highest Speeds On Rails: Egg Harbor To Brigantine Junction (phila Delphia And Reading), 4.8 Miles, In 2m. 30s., Averaging ...

S C Spartanburg
Spartanburg, S. C., City And County Seat Of Spartanburg County, Situated At The Foot Of The Blue Ridge Mountains, On The Main Line Of The Southern Railway, And On The Charleston And Western Carolina, The Carolina, Clinchfield And Ohio, And The Piedmont And Northern Railroads, About 100 Miles Northwest Of ...

S Sioux Falls
Sioux Falls, S. Dak., City, County-seat Of Minnehaha County; On The Sioux River, And On The Chicago, Milwaukee And Saint Paul And The Chicago Saint Paul, Minneapolis And I Omaha, The Illinois Central, The Rock Island, Watertown And Sioux Falls And The Great Northern Railroads, About Eight Miles From The ...

Sapindace1e
Sapindace1e. The 1914 Census Of Manu Factures Shows That There Were In The United States In That Year 371 Soap-making Establish Ments, With A Combined Capital Of $92,871,533 And Employing An Aggregate Of 14,172 Hands, Who Earned In The Year A Total Of $8,087,937 In Wages. The Raw Materials Used ...

Sib Stanley
Stanley, Sib Henry Morton, Anglo American Explorer: B. Near Denbigh, Wales, 28 Jan. 1841; D. London, 10 May 1904. His Name Was Originally John Rowlands And At Three He Was Placed In The Poorhouse At Saint Asaph, Where He Remained For 10 Years, Making Such Progress That When He Left ...

Silk Cotton Trees
Silk-cotton Trees, Any One Of The Trees Belonging To Several Tropical Genera Of The Family Bombacacett, As Bombax, Ceiba, Erio Dendron, Ochroma And Pachira. They Are Usually Large Trees, The Greater Number Native To Central And South America, With Handsome Mallow-like Flowers, Light, Soft Wood And Bark Containing Bast Fibres ...

Silk And The Silk
Silk And The Silk Industry. In This It Is Proposed To Trace Briefly The His Tory Of The Manufacture Of Silk, Which Has Been Throughout All The Past An Article Of Luxury, And Which As Late As The 3d Century Of Our Era Commanded A Price So Great As To ...

Silkworms
Silkworms, Entomologically, Any Cater Pillar Which Spins A Cocoon Of Silky Fibre; Pop Ularly, The Various Species Which Yield A Fibre Used Commercially. All Are Caterpillars Of Moths And Feed Upon Foliage Of Various Trees And Shrubs. Among The Less Important Species The Following Are Probably Best Known: The Japanese ...

Silliman
Silliman, Benjamin, Amer Ican Scientist: B. North Stratford (now Trum Bull), Conn., 8 Aug. 1779; D. New Haven, Conn., 24 Nov. 1864. He Was Graduated From Yale In 1796, Studied Law And Was Admitted To The Bar In 1802, But Accepted The Chair Of Chemistry And Natural History At Yale ...

Silurian
Silurian, A Term Applied In 1835 By Sir Roderick Murchison, Director-general Of The Geological Survey Of Great Britain, To Those Rocks Of South Wales (the Country Of The Old Silures), Which Were Formerly Included As °grauwacke° In The Transition System Of Rocks. The Term Is Also Applied To The Period ...

Silva
Silva, Serva, Josh Asunci6n, Colombian Poet: B. 1860; D. 1896. Though Apparently Very Much Of A Pessimist, His Poems Abound In Evi Dence That His Pessimism Was To A Great Extent Accidental And Unnatural To The Poet. He Dis Plays A Deep Love Of Nature, Of The Beauty Of The ...

Silver
Silver, One Of The Best Known Metals, Has Been In Use For A Long Period, Probably Since Before The Beginning Of History. It Is Widely Distributed And Can Be Easily Extracted From Some Of Its Ores. Physical Silver Is Very Malle Able And Ductile, Being Surpassed Only By Gold In ...

Silverware
Silverware. Frequently Termed Plate Or Silver Plate. From The Nature Of The Use _ . To Which Articles Composed Of Silver Are Put They Are Often Classified Under Such Heads As Ecclesiastical And Civil, Or Ecclesiastical, Munici Pal And Domestic. The Usual Styles Of Manipu Lation Of The Metal In ...

Or Inanition Starvation
Starvation, Or Inanition, Low Ered Vitality, Accompanied By Emaciation, En Feeblement Which If Prolonged Results In Death, Through Lack' Of Food. Starve Is Derived From Old English Steorfan, To Die. The Phenomena Of Starvation Presents Subjects Of Great Interest From Their Bearing Upon Phenomena Induced Through The Inability To Take ...

Or Lewis Snake
Snake, Or Lewis (the Suosnotte Of The Indians), A River Which Has Its Rise In The Mountains Of Western Wyoming, In Two Streams, Called The North And South Forks. Entering Idaho The River Flows Southwest, Then Northwest To The Oregon State Boundary, Then North, Forming The Boundary For 100 Miles, ...

Or Murfreesboro Stone River
Stone River, Or Murfreesboro, Battle Of. After The Battle Of Perryville (q.v.) 7-8 Oct. 1862, And General Bragg's Retreat From Kentucky Into East Tennessee, Bragg Was Au Thorized By The Confederate Government To Make A Movement Into Middle Tennessee, And Late In November Had Gathered His Army At And Near ...

Or Pur Singapore
Singapore, Or Pur, East India, A British Possession Consist Ing Of A Small Island And A Strongly Fortified Seaport City, The Capital Of The Crown Colony Of The Straits Settlements, Off The Southern Ex Tremity Of The Malay Peninsula, Commanding The Eastern Entrance To Malacca Strait, The Chief Route To ...

Or Slovenes Slovenians
Slovenians, Or Slovenes, The Na Tive Name Of The Slavic Inhabitants Of Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, The Austrian Maritime Ter Ritory, A Narrow Strip In The West Of Hungary And In Venetian Friuli. By The Germans They Are Often Called Wends Or Winds. They Settled In These Districts Toward The End ...

Or Soudan Sudan
Sudan, Or Soudan, Is The Arab Name Given To The Vast Extent Of Country In Central Africa Which Lies Between The Sahara On The North, Abyssinia And The Red Sea On The East, The Countries Draining The Kongo Basin On The South And Senegambia On The West. Its Area Is ...

Or Spartacides Spartacans
Spartacans, Or Spartacides, Is The Name Acquired Soon After The Going Into Effect Of The Armistice Accorded Germany In Nov. 1918, By The Special Followers Of Karl Liebknecht (q.v.), Leader Of The Extreme Left Wing Of The German Socialist Party, Or Inde Pendents, Notably During The Several Risings Of The ...

Or Spotiswood Spotswood
Spotswood, Or Spotiswood, Spot' Is-wild, John, Scottish Ecclesiastic: B. In The Parish Of Mid-calder, Midlothian, 1565; D. Lon Don, 26 Nov. 1639. He Studied At The University Of Glasgow, And At 18 Became Assistant To His Father As Parson Of Calder. At The Outset He Supported The Presbyterian Party, But ...

Or Stukely Stucley
Stucley, Or Stukely, Thomas, English Adventurer: B. About 1525• D. Alcazar, 4 Aug. 1578. He Was Sent To Eng Land (1552) Recommended By Henry Ii Of France, To Whose Notice He Had Been Brought Through His Military Talents. Instead Of Obtain Ing The Secret Information He Was Sent For That ...

Or Thiocy Anic Acid
Sulphocyanic Acid, Or Thiocy Anic Acid, A Substance Having The Chemical Formula Hs.cn For The Normal Form. The Acid Form, Hn.cs, Has Not Been Isolated But Its Ethereal Salts Have Been Recognized, And Possessing Powerful Acid Properties. The Hy Drogen That It Contains Can Be Replaced By Bases, With The ...