Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25 >> Smeaton to Soiling

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25

Smeaton
Smeaton, Smet6n, John, English Civil Engineer: B. Austhorpe, Near Leeds, Yorkshire, 8 June 1724; D. There, 28 Oct 1792. His Father Was An Attorney, And Took Him To London In 1742, Where He Attended The Courts In West Minster Hall; But After Discovering His Son's Disinclination To The Profession He ...

Smith
Smith, Adam, Scottish Economist And Philosopher : B. Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire, 5 June 1723; D. Edinburgh, 17 July 1790. He Studied At The University Of Glasgow, Where He Re Mained Until 1740, When He Went To Balliol Col Lege, Oxford. Quitting Oxford, And All Views To The Church, Which Had Led ...

Smith College
Smith College, Located At North Ampton, Mass. It Was Founded By Sophia Smith, Who Bequeathed $393,105 For "an Insti Tution Of Learning For The Higher Education Of Young Women, With The Design To Furnish Them Means And Facilities For Education Equal To Those Which Are Afforded In The Colleges For ...

Smith_10
Smith, Joseph (son Of Joseph Smith Who Was Instrumental In Organizing The Church Of Jesus Christ Of Latter Day Saints, At Fay Ette, New York, 6 April 1830): B. Kirtland, Ohio, 6 Nov. 1832; D. Independence, Mo., 10 Dec. 1914. He Resided With His Parents At Kirtland, Ohio, Until Their ...

Smith_11
Smith, Joseph Fielding, American Reli Gious Leader, President Of The Church Of Jesus Christ Of Latter Day Saints, Nephew Of Joseph Smith (1805-44) : B. Far West, Caldwell County, Mo., 13 Nov. 1838; D. Salt Lake City, Utah, 19 Nov. 1918. His Childhood Was Spent Amid Persecutions And Hardships Which ...

Smith_12
Smith, Sidney, English Clergyman, Au Thor And Wit: B. Woodford, Essex, 3 June 1771; D. London, 22 Feb. 1845. He Was Edu Cated At New College, Oxford, Of Which He Be Came A Fellow In 1791, And Obtained In 1794 The Curacy Of Netheravon, A Village In Salisbury Plain, Near ...

Smith_13
Smith, William Robertson, Oriental Scholar: B. 1846; D. 31 March 1894. He Was The Son Of The Free Church Minister At Keig, Aber Deenshire; Was Educated At Aberdeen Univer Sity, Where He Graduated In 1865, Taking The • Highest Honors. Subsequently He Spent Some Time At The New College, Edinburgh, ...

Smith_2
Smith, Alfred E., American Legislator And Statesman: B. New York City, 30 Dec. 1873. He Attended The Parochial School Of Saint James In New York And After Graduation Took Charge Of The Trucking Business Of His Father. In 1895 Mr. Smith Was Appointed Clerk In The Office Of The Commissioner ...

Smith_3
Smith, Edmund Kirby, American Sol Dier: B. Saint Augustine, Fla. 16 May 1824; D. Sewanee, Tenn., 28 March 1893. He Was Grad Uated At West Point In 1845, And Entered The Mexican Campaign As Second Lieutenant In The Fifth Infantry. He Fought At Palo Alto, Resaca De La Palma And ...

Smith_4
Smith, Frederick M., Son Of Joseph Smith And Grandson Of The Founder Of The Church Of Jesus Christ Of Latter-day Saints, Sometimes Erroneously Called Mormons, Was Born At Plano, Ill., 21 Jan. 1874 And In 1881 Moved With His Parents To Lamoni, Iowa, Where He Grew To Manhood. He Attended ...

Smith_5
Smith, George, English Assyriologist: B. London, 26 March 1840; D. Aleppo, Asiatic Turkey, 19 Aug. 1876. He Was Apprenticed To The Engraver's Trade, But Became Deeply Inter Ested In The Oriental Explorations Of Layard And Rawlinson And Devoted Himself In His Spare Time To The Study Of Assyrian Subjects. His ...

Smith_6
Smith, Gerrit, American Philanthropist, Reformer And Statesman : B. Utica, N. Y., 6 March 1797; D. New York, 28 Dec. 1874. He Was Graduated From Hamilton College In 1818, Subsequently Devoted Himself To The Manage Ment Of His Great Landed Estate In Central And Northern New York, And Was Very ...

Smith_7
Smith, Goldwin, English Scholar And Au Thor: B. Reading, Berkshire, 13 Aug. 1823; D. Toronto, 7 June 1910. He Was Graduated From Oxford (university College) In 1845, Became Fellow Of His College In 1847, Was Called In That Year To The Bar At Lincoln's Inn, In 1850 Was Made Assistant ...

Smith_8
Smith, Horatio (always Called Horace), And James, English Authors: B. London, 31 Dec. 1779 And London, 10 Feb, 1775; D. Tun Bridge Wells, 12 July 1849, And London, 24 Dec. 1839. James Smith Became Solicitor To The Board Of Ordnance, And Horace A Stock-broker. Being Both Of A Literary Turn, ...

Smith_9
Smith, John, English Soldier And Colonist, Founder Of Virginia: B. Willoughby, Lincoln Shire, 1580; D. London, June 1631. In 1596 He Enlisted In The French Army To Fight Against Spain, But After The Peace In 1598 Transferred His Services To The Insurgents In The Nether Lands, And There Remained Until ...

Smithson
Smithson, James, Founder Of The Smith Sonian Institution At Washington: B. Weston, Super-mare, Somerset, England, About 1765; D. Genoa, Italy, 27 June 1829. His Mother At The Time Of His Birth Was The Widow Of James Macie, A Country Gentleman Of An Old Family. Smithson Describes Himself In His Final ...

Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution, The, An Establishment At Washington, Founded Under A Bequest Of James Smithson (q.v.), Couched In The Following Terms: '
Smoke
Smoke, The Exhalation Or Visible Vapor That Arises From A Substance Burning. In Its More Extended Sense The Word Smoke Is Applied To All The Volatile Products Of Combustion, Which Consist Of Gaseous Exhalations Charged With Minute Portions Of Carbonaceous Matter Or Soot; But, As Often Used In Reference To ...

Smoke Nuisance
Smoke Nuisance. Various Measures Have Been Taken Both In England And The United States To Overcome The Evil Effects Of Soft Coal Smoke, Especially In Large Cities. In 1875 A Public Health Act Was Passed In England To Prevent Nuisance From Smoke In Towns Which Provided That All Fireplaces, Furnaces ...

Smokeless Powders
Smokeless Powders Are The Mod Ern Explosives Which Have Replaced Black Gun Powder For Use As Propellents In Guns. Such Powders Are Styled Smokeless Because They Give Rise To Comparatively Little Smoke When Fired. This Is Due To The Fact That The Products Of Their Combustion Are Practically All Gaseous ...

Smollett
Smollett, Tobias George, English Novelist : B. Near Dumbarton, Scotland, 1721; D. Near Leghorn, Italy, 17 Sept. 1771. He Be Longed To A Family Of Scotch Lairds Seated At Bonhill, Near Dumbarton, In The Picturesque Valley Of The Leven. His Grandfather, Sir James Smollett (1648-1731) Represented Dum Barton In The ...

Smuggling
Smuggling, The Practice Of Violating The Revenue Laws Of A Country By Importing Or Ex Porting Goods Upon Which Duty Is Payable, With Intent To Avoid Payment Of That Duty. It Is A General Custom In All Countries To Lay A Duty On Certain Imported Goods, While In Some Rare ...

Smyrna
Smyrna, Smeena (turkish, Izmni), Asia Minor, An Ancient City And The Most Important Seaport Of Asia Minor, On The West Coast Of Anatolia, At The Head Of The Gulf Of Smyrna (a Sheltered Inlet Of The Łean Sea Extending Inward For About 45 Miles). A Broad Quay And Artificial Harbor, ...

Smyrna Camp Ground
Smyrna Camp Ground, Engage Ment At, In The Civil War. On The Night Of 2 July 1864, Gen. ,j.. E. Johnston Abandoned Marietta For A New Position 10 Miles South, Covering The Railroad And His Pontoon-bridges, With An Advanced Position At Smyrna Camp Ground, Six Miles Below Marietta. Sherman Pushed ...

Snails And Slugs
Snails And Slugs, Names Restricted In Their Original Application To Gasteropodous Mol Lusks Typifying The Families Helicidce And Limacidce Respectively, But Now Used In A Much Wider Sense. The Terrestrial And Fresh-water Snails And Slugs Represent The Order Pulmonata, Characterized By The Presence Of A Lung-sac For The Respiration Air ...

Snappers
Snappers, A Rather Numerous Assemblage Of Fishes Belonging To The Genus Lutjanus And Related Genera, Usually Considered As Belonging To The Family Sparida (q.v.), But Sometimes Erected Into A Distinct Family (lutjanida). They Have The Body More Elongated Than The Typical Members Of The Sparida, The Teeth Little Differentiated And ...

Snickers Ferry And Berrys
Snicker's Ferry And Berry's Ferry, Engagements At, American Civil War. General Early Withdrew From The Front Of Washington On The Night Of 12 July 1864, Recrossed The Potomac At White's Ford On The Morning Of The 14th, Rested That Day And The Next At Leesburg, And On The 16th Marched ...

Snipe
Snipe, Certain Limicoline Birds Of The Fam Ily Scolopacidee. As Explained In The Article Sandpiper (q.v.) The Names Snipe And Sandpiper Are, To A Large Extent, Used Interchangeably, Many Of The Species, More Properly Designated As Sandpipers, Having Also One Or More Local Names Of Which Snipe Forms A Part. ...

Snow
Snow Is The Water In Solution In The At Mosphere Crystallized Into Geometrical Forms, Or Congealed By Cold Into Granules Or Irregular Particles. Snow Forms Usually Within The Clouds At Various Heights In The Atmosphere, According To The Latitude, Degree Of Cold Prevailing At A I Given Locality, Altitude Of ...

Snow Plow
Snow Plow, A Machine Or Implement Used To Clear Snow From Roads, Tracks And Path Ways. The Simplest Form For Common High Ways Consists Of Boards Framed Together So As To Form A Sharp Angle, Like The Letter A In Front And Spreading Out Behind To A Greater Or Less ...

Snowshoe
Snowshoe, A Framework Loosely At Tached To The Shoe Or Moccasin For Giving Sup Port To The Wearer In Walking Over Soft Snow, Much Used By The Northern Indians, The Cana Dians, Laplanders And Other Residents Of Coun Tries Where Snow Remains For Long Periods. It Consists Of A Frame ...

Snuff
Snuff, A Powder Manufactured From To Bacco And Used For Chewing And For Inhaling Through The Nose. For The Manufacture Of The Finest Grades Of Snuff Only The Choicest Por Tions Of Fine Leaf Are Used, But For The Ordinary Commercial Brands The Thick, Stemmy Portions, The Mid-rib And Scrap ...

Soap
Soap, A Chemical Combination Of Fats And Alkali, Used As A Detergent. The Cleansing Prop Erties Of These Compounds Have Been Known For A Very Long Time; The Manufacture Of Soap Upon A Large Scale Dates Only From About 1823, In Which Year Chevreul Published His Famous Re Searches Upon ...

Soap Bubbles
Soap Bubbles, Originally A Simple Ex Periment For Pleasing Children, Produced By Making Water Quite Soapy And Preferably Warm And Then Dipping A Clay Smoker's Pipe Or A Tube Into The Water, Withdrawing It With A Film Of Soapy Solution Of Water Across The Aperture Or Bowl Of The Pipe. ...

Social Centres
Social Centres. The Term Social Centres Is Specifically Applied To The Special In Stitutions Which Have Quite Recently Developed This Country, But In A Broader Sense Com Prises Also The Wider Use For Social Purposes Of Existing Institutions, Such As The School And Church. The Movement In Either Of These ...

Social Contract
Social Contract, The. The Social Contract' Was That One Of Rousseau's Important Works Which Bore Most Directly On The Con Stitution And Ordering Of States. In 1743 Rousseau Had Gone To Venice As Secretary To M. Montagu And Had Acquired Some Slight Practical Experience Of Diplomacy And State Craft. Some ...

Social Insurance
Social Insurance, A Comparatively New Term Which Originated Within The Last Dec Ade In Germany (socialversicherung) And France (assurance Social), To Cover That Field Of Social Or Labor Legislation, Known Heretofore As Workingmen's Insurance, Labor Insurance Or Even Industrial Insurance. The Broadening Of The Term Indicates Not Only The Tendency ...

Social Psychology
Social Psychology. Social Psy Chology Is That Branch Of Psychology Which Deals With The Mind As It Is Affected By And Manifested In Relations With Other Minds. It Deals With The Behavior Of Human Beings And Animals In Groups, And The Emotions And Thoughts Which Group Behavior Involves. There Is ...

Social Reform Programs And
Social Reform Programs And Movements: Their Historical Develop Ment. The Programs And Movements For Social Reform Date Back In Their Origins Almost To The Dawn Of Written History. Oppression Of Certain Classes Existed In The First Historic Societies And It Is Not Surprising That Some Of The Earliest Literature Reflects ...

Social Service
Social Service, American Institute Of. The League For Social Service Of New York City Was Organized In New York In 1898 By Josiah Strong And William H. Tolman, Who Became Its President And Secretary, Re Spectively. The League, Reorganized, Enlarged And Incorporated, Became Known In 1902 As The American Institute ...

Social Service
Social Service, The Modern Study Of People And Conditions Looking Toward The Bet Terment Of Mankind; A Forward Movement Deal Ing With Life, Occupations And Environments, Embracing The Observation And Investigation Of The Relations Between Employers And Em Ployees, Co-operation, Labor Legislation, Hours Of Work, Wages, Industrial Betterment, Child Labor, ...

Social And University Settle
Social And University Settle Ments. Social Service Is The Modern Study Of People And Conditions Looking Toward The Betterment Of Mankind; A Forward Movement Dealing With Life, Occupation And Environments, Embracing The Observation And Investigation Of The Relations Between Employers And Employees, Co-operation, Labor Legislation, Hours Of Work, Wages, Industrial ...

Socialism
Socialism Is A Word Having Two Dis Tinct But Related Meanings: Primarily It Is Used As The Name Of A Certain Philosophy Of History And Method Of Interpreting And Analyzing Social Phenomena. In The Second Place, Since This Philosophy And Method Have As One Of Their Principal Conclusions That Society ...

Societies
Societies, Criminal. To Find The Origin Of The Idea That Has Given The World Its Criminal Associations It Would Be Necessary To Conduct The Search Into The Realm Of Fables, For If There Has Been A Time When Bands Of Outlaws Have Not Levied Tribute Upon Poorly Protected Property, History ...

Society Islands Tahiti
Society Islands (tahiti), South Pacific Ocean, A French Dependency, Between The Low Islands And The Friendly Islands. This Is The Largest Group Of The Leeward Islands, And Consists Of The Principal Island Of Tahiti (q.v.) Or Otaheite, Which Is About 32 Miles Long Northwest To Southeast, And Is Divided Into ...

Society Of Saint Vincent
Society Of Saint Vincent De Paul, A Roman Catholic Charitable Organiza Tion, Founded In May 1833, In Paris, By Freder Ick Ozanam (q.v.) And Seven Companions. At Their First Meeting The Object Of The Society Was Outlined And Expressed In The Few Words: "our Work Shall Be For The Service ...

Sociology
Sociology. The Following Exposition Does Not Attempt To Mediate Between The Numer Ous Claimants To The Name "sociology." It Frankly Applies The Name To The Attempts To Establish A Division Of Knowledge Co-ordinate In Dignity With The Older Social Sciences. It Indi Cates The Actual Growth And Present Character Of ...

Socrates
Socrates, Sok'ra-tez, Greek Philosopher: B. Athens, In 469 A.c.; D. 399' B.c. His Father, Sophroniscus, Was A Sculptor, And Socrates Him Self Followed This Occupation For A Time. His Mother, Phenarete, Was A Midwife. In His Youth He Received The Education Prescribed By The Laws, And Also Made Himself Acquainted ...

Soda
Soda Commercial Roduction. Sodium Carbonate In The Form Of S Da Ash Is The Princi Pal Form In Which Comm Rcial Soda Is Pro Duced Although Some Of It Is Immediately Trans Formed Into Caustic Soda. Main Source Is Salt And Limestone Treate By The Solvay Process, But A Small ...

Sodium
Sodium (from °soda," Which Word Was Used In The Middle Ages To Designate Alkaline Substances In General), A Metallic Element, First Prepared By Davy In 1807, By The Electrolysis Of Molten Caustic Soda, Or Sodium Hydroxide. In 1808 Gay-lussac And Thenard Showed That The Metal Can Be Prepared By Reducing ...

Sohrab And Rustum
Sohrab And Rustum, By Matthew Arnold (published 1853), Is Perhaps The Most Important Classical English Poem Since Words Worth. Its Theme— The Combat Of A Father With His Son In Ignorance Of Their Kinship— Involves Central Human Relations In Love And In War, And Gives Full Scope For Pathos, Tragic ...

Soil
Soil, A Term Used To Designate The Super Ficial Portion Of The Earth's Surface Composed Of Broken And Disintegrated Rock Mixed With Vary Ing Proportions Of Decayed And Decaying Animal And Vegetable Matter (humus). For The Entire Mantle Of Unconsolidated Material Covering The Earth's Surface And Including The Soil Merrill ...

Soiling
Soiling, The System Of Feeding Grazing Animals, Especially Cattle, In Barns And Other Enclosures, With Freshly Cut Green Crops Grown For The Purpose, Instead Of Turning Them Out To Pasture. The Practice Has Its Most Important Application In Intensive Farming And On Small I Farms As In Europe, But Is ...