Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25 >> Spalding to Spokane

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25

Spalding
Spalding, John Lancaster, Catholic Prelate: B. Lebanon, Ky., 2 June 1840; D. Peoria, Iii., 25 Aug. 1916. His Preliminary Studies Were Pursued At Saint Mary's, Kentucky, And Sub Sequently He Attended Mount Saint Mary's, Emmitsburg, And Mount Saint Mary's, Cincin Nati, Afterward Entering The American College At Louvain, Belgium, And ...

Spaniel
Spaniel, A Small Shaggy Race Of Dogs, De Riving Its Name From Spain, Whence It Originally Came To Great Britain, And Now Generally Di Vided Into The Two Groups — Sporting And Toy Spaniels. The Common °field" Spaniel Is The Type Of The Group And Two Breeds Of This Variety, ...

Spanish Art
Spanish Art. At The Beginning Of Any Profound Study Of The Greatest Of The Spanish Paintings, Which Were Those Of The 17th Century, Should Stand The Fact, The True Significance Of Which Has Hitherto Been Overlooked By Art Critics, That The Production Of The Famous Ironwork Of Spain Trained Eye ...

Spanish Language
Spanish Language, The. Spanish Is One Of The Modern Spoken And Written Forms Of Latin, That Is, It Is A Neo-latin Or Romance Language. Its Motherland Is Spain In The Iberian Peninsula. Besides Spanish Two Sister Romance Tongues Are In Use In The Peninsula, Viz., In The Western Part, Portuguese ...

Spanish Law
Spanish Law. The System Of Juris Prudence And Judicial Practice As Developed In Spain And Later Extended To The Spanish West Indies, Central America, Mexico, The Spanish Speaking Countries Of South America And The Philippines. It Is One Of The Oldest Systems Of Law, And As At Present Constituted Is ...

Spanish Literature
Spanish Literature. For The Sake Of Convenience The History Of Spanish Literature As Written In The Motherland May Be Regarded As Constituting Four Chronological Divisions, Namely, The Old Spanish Period, Extending From The 12th Century Down To The 16th; The Golden Age, Which Runs Through The 16th And 17th Centuries; ...

Spanish Music
Spanish Music. Spanish Art And Lit Erature Are Characterized By The Short Dura Tion Of Their Flowering Season. Two Centuries — From 1500 To 1700—include Almost Every Thing That Is Eminently Important In These Fields. Calderon, Lope De Vega, Cervantes, Velasquez And Murillo,— All Belong To This Period. It Is ...

Spargo
Spargo, John, American Author: B. Stithians, Cornwall, England, 31 Jan. 1876. He Was Educated In The Public Schools And Under The University Extension Courses Of Oxford And Cambridge. At The Age Of 18 He Became Identi Fied With The Socialist Movement In England; He Publicly Opposed The Boer War And ...

Sparks
Sparks, Jared, American Scholar And His Torian: B. Willington, Tolland County, Conn., 10 May 1789; D. Cambridge, Mass., 14 March 1866. He Was Graduated From Harvard In 1815, Studied Theology With Dr. Nathaniel Thayer From May 1817 To March 1818, Was Editor Of The North American Review, Then Begun In ...

Sparrow
Sparrow, The Familiar Name Of Many Small Birds Of The Finch Family (fringillide), Applied Loosely To The Representatives Of A Large And Varied Assemblage Of Genera. Generally Speaking, Sparrows Are Moderate-sized Members Of The Family Which Live Mostly On Or Near The Ground, Whose Bills Are Neither Especially Short And ...

Sparta
Sparta, Spieta., A Celebrated City Of An Cient Greece, The Capital Of Laconia And Of The Spartan State, Was Situated On The West Bank Of The River Eurotas, And Embraced A Circuit Of Six Miles. Sparta Was Irregularly Built, And From This Circumstance It Is Supposed To Have Got Its ...

Spear
Spear, A Weapon Of Offense, Consisting Of A Wooden Shaft Or Pole Varying In Length Up To Eight Or Nine Feet, And Provided With A Sharp Piercing Point. The Spear May Be Regarded As The Prototype Of The Various Forms Of Piercing Weapons, Such As The Arrow, Bolt And Dart, ...

Special Or Alloy Steel
Steel, Special Or Alloy. Steel Is An Alloy Of Iron And Carbon Containing Less Than 22 Per Cent Carbon — As A Rule Less Than 1.50 Per Cent Carbon — Which Is Malleable In At Least One Range Of Temperatures (difference From Cast Iron)— And Which May Be Hardened By ...

Specie Resumption
Specie Resumption. The Resump Tion Of Specie Payments After The Close Of The American Civil War Was A Subject Of Long And Anxious Discussion In Congress And In The Press. In 1861 Payment In Specie Was Sus Pended By The Government And By Banks Throughout The United States, And Congress ...

Species
Species, A Group Of Individuals Which Agree In Exhibiting Certain Distinctive Hereditary Characters Of Sufficient Importance To Render A Particular Name Convenient. When We Famil Iarly Talk Of The Different °kinds° Of Plants And Animals, We Indicate In A Rough Way The Biological Ideal Of Species; And The Recognition Of ...

Specific Gravity
Specific Gravity. The Specific Grav Ity Of A Body Is The Ratio Of The Mass Of That Body To The Mass Of An Equal Volume Of Some Standard Substance Which Is Arbitrarily Selected For Purposes Of Reference. In The Cases Of Solids And Liquids It Is Customary To Select Water ...

Spectacles
Spectacles, Magnifying Glasses Made As A Pair To Be Fitted Over The Eyes To Aid The Vision, Supposed To Have Been Invented By Roger Bacon In The 13th Century, And Used To Magnify An Object Or Correct Some Defect In The Organs Of Vision. Spectacles Consist Generally Of Two Oval ...

Spectator
Spectator, The. Tuesday, 12 April 1709, Deserves To Be Remembered As An Impor Tant Date In The History Of English Literature. For On That Day Richard Steele Issued The First Number Of The Taller. This Modest Half Sheet, Issued Thrice A Week, Was In Reality The Begin Ning Of English ...

Spectroscopy
Spectroscopy. If One Observes A Bunsen Flame Through An Ordinary Glass Prism Held Close To The Eye He Will See A Succession Of Colored Images Of The Flame. This Series Of Colored Images Is Called The Spectrum Of The Flame. An Instrument, Such As The Prism, Which Will Separate The ...

Speech
Speech, The Production Of Articulate Sounds By The Voice Organs; It Consists In Tones Of Voice Modified By The Agency Of The Tongue, Cheeks, Lips And Other Structures Intervening Between The Glottis And The Outer Opening Of The Mouth. The Modifications Of Articulate Sounds Which May Be Invented And Used ...

Speech
Speech, Genesis Of, Or The Origin Of Language.* Of These Alternative Titles The Latter Is The Broader, Since °language* Is Used Of The Expressive Movements Of Any Part Of The Body (compare The Term Gesture Lan Guage), While °speech° Is Applied Only To Ex Pressive Movements Of The Vocal Organs. ...

Speech_2
Speech, Defects Of. Speech Is An Ex Tremely Complex And Intricate Mechanism, And In The Normal Adult Represents A Large Number Of Various Factors. Its Defects, Therefore, Are Equally Complex. In Ordinary Speech At Least Three Separate Types Of Processes Are Involved: (1) Sensory; (2) Motor, And (3) Intellectual Or ...

Speech_3
Speech, Figures Of, Deviations From The Usual Order Of Words In A Sentence Or From Their Common And Literal Sense. These Devia Tions Are Employed To Give Vivacity To Language In Some Form Or Another. Often Compara Tively Primitive Languages Are Rich In Bold And Imaginative Figures Of Speech. This ...

Speeds And Records Sports
Sports: Their Development, Speeds And Records. In The State Of Savagery Man's Life Depended On His Agility In Running, Jumping, Climbing And Throwing Of Projectiles. In The High Condition Of Civil Ization Of Ancient Greece The Natives Considered Prowess In The Arts Of Speed And Endurance As Evidence Of Superiority ...

Speke
Speke, Spek, John Henning, African Ex Plorer; B. Near Ilchester, Somerset, 4 May 1827; D. Near Bath, 15 Sept. 1864. In 1844 He En Tered The Army And Took Part In The Sikh War. During His Leave Of Absence He Made Hunting And Exploring Expeditions Over The Himalayas And Through ...

Spelling
Spelling, Orthography, The Formation Of Words By Means Of Letters Or Alphabetic Sym Bols. In Certain Languages Like Spanish, For Instance, The System Of Representing The Sounds Of The Language By Alphabetic Symbols Is Prae Tically Perfect. In Other Words It Is Phonetic. In English, On The Contrary, The Muhiplicity ...

Spelling Reform
Spelling Reform, A Systematic At Tempt To Represent Phonetically By Letters In Writing And Print The Accepted Pronunciation Of Words. Such Changes As Have Been Made In Any Of The Languages Where The Attempt Has Been Made Are Of A Purely Tentative Order. As Was To Be Expected, In View ...

Spencer
Spencer, Joseph William Winthrop, American Geologist: H. Dundas, Canada, 2 March 1851. After Graduating From Mcgill University, Montreal, In 1874, Where He Took First Honors In Geology And Mineralogy, He Studied At The University Of Cizttingen, Ger Many, Whence He Was Graduated Ph.d., In 1877. In 1877 He Was Appointed ...

Spencer
Spencer, Herbert, Philosopher And Ex Ponent Of The Modern Philosophy Of Evolution: B. Derby, England, 27 April 1820; D. 8 Dec. 1903. His Father Was A Teacher, A Non-conform Ist, Who Was For Years A Wesleyan, But Who Afterward Seceded From That Religious Body And Remained To The End Of ...

Spener
Spener, Spa'ner, Philipp Jakob, German Clergyman, "the Father Of Pietism": B. Rap Poltsweiler, Upper Alsace, 13 Jan. 1635; D. Ber Lin, 5 Feb. 1705. Although Called The Founder Of Pietism (q.v.), Which Resulted In A Salutary Reformation Within The Lutheran State Church, None Of The Errors Or Extravagances Which Marked ...

Spenser
Spenser, Edmund, English Poet: B. Lon Don (probably In East Smithfield Near The Tower), About 1552; D. Westminster, 16 Jan. 1599. He Was The Eldest Son Of Elizabeth (cf. Lxxiv) And (perhaps) Spenser, °free Journeyman" In The "arte Or Mysterie Of Clothmakynge," In 1566 With One Nicholas Peele, Usheermann In ...

Spermatozoon
Spermatozoon, The Male Element; One Of The Flagellated Cells Developed In The Tem., (see Testicle) Of Male Animals, And Rosiveyed In Their Secretion (sperm Of Semen) .tpi An Egg. Of A Female Of The Same Kind, By Copulation, Or Otherwise, For The Sake Of Cualeseang, With (impregnating Or Fertilizing) That ...

Spheroidal State Or Condi
Spheroidal State Or Condi Tion, The State Of A Liquid When It Presents Spherical Phenomena Caused By It On A Very Hot Surface; The So-called Ecaloric Para Dox." Leidenfrost Observed That A Drop Of Water Placed On A Very Hot Surface Assumed A Spheroidal Shape And Did Not Touch The ...

Sphinx
Sphinx, The, A Mythological Monster Variously Described But Usually With A Lion's Body, The Head And Sometimes The Breasts Of A Woman, The Wings Of A Bird And A Serpent's Supposed To Represent Some Ancient Sym Bolism. The Egyptians Called The Sphinix Hu, Or Neb (lord). Its Present Name Is ...

Spices
Spices, A Popular Name For Such Plant Components, Having Essential Oils" Of Aromatic Odor And Pungent Flavor, As Are Used Direct And Blended In For Seasoning Food; In Fresh Food Nearly Always Ground, In Preserves And Pickles Always Whole. Their Companions Spread On, As Mustard Or Used Only In Extracts, ...

Spiders
Spiders, Invertebrates Of The Order Aran Ea., Class Arachnida. The English Name Spider, Spinder, Spinner, Spinster, The Spinning One —comes From The Functions For Which These Creatures Have Been Chiefly Distinguished. They Are Cosmopolitan In Distribution; Are Found In Greenland And Swarm In The Tropics. They Show Great And Striking ...

Spinach
Spinach, Spinlj, Or Spinage, An An Nual Herb (spinacia Oleracea) Of The Family Chenopodiacece. The Plant Is Probably Indige Nous To Southwestern Asia, Whence It Has Been Carried To All Cool Climates Throughout The Civilized World For Use As A Potherb. The Original Species Has A Rosette Of Arrow-shaped Radical ...

Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord, The Posterior Or Inferior Portion Of The Cerebrospinal Axis, Entirely Located In The Spinal Canal. In Those Animals Which Stand Upright It May Be Termed The Lower Portion. The Spinal Cord Is Directly Continuous With The Medulla Oblongata (q.v.) And, Varying With Different Animals, It Extends Practically The ...

Spinal Cord Surgery
Spinal Cord Surgery. The Sur Gery Of The Spinal Cord Has Been Much Advanced During The Last Decade And At The Present Time Clear Indications Exist For Operative Interference. In Injuries Of The Spinal Cord Due To Fracture Of The Vertebra Or Bullet Or High Explosive Wounds, Operative Interference Should ...

Spinal Nerves
Spinal Nerves, The Paired Nerves Which Arise From And Pass Into The Spinal Cord (q.v.), And Which Are Distributed To The Vari Ous Muscles Of The Body And Come From The Various Sense-organs, Skin, Intestines, Bladder, Etc. The Spinal Nerves Are So Named In Contra Distinction To The Cranial Nerves, ...

Spine
Spine, Pathological Changes In. The Odontoid Process Of The Axis Of The Spine Pre Sents Two Articulating Surfaces, One In Front, Of An Oval Form, For Articulating With The Atlas, And Another For The Transverse Ligament, The Latter Frequently Encroaching On The Sides Of The Process. Serious Displacement At This ...

Spinning
Spinning, The Process Of Twisting Into Fine Threads Of Uniform Size Fibres Of Cotton, Flax, Wool Or Other Fibres For Weaving Pur Poses. The Process Was Performed By Hand From Early Egyptian Times With The Distaff And Spindle, The Distaff Being A Stick Or Staff On Which A Mass Of ...

Spire
Spire, A Sharply-pointed, Tapering Roof, Most Commogly The Roof Of A Tower, Though A Light Structure Often Set At The Crossing Of The Roof In A Cruciform Church Is Also Called A Spire (french, !lecke), The Term Covering The Lantern With Upright Sides From Which The Pointed Roof Swings. The ...

Spirit Of Laws
Spirit Of Laws, The (l'esprit Des Lois). °montesquieu,' Says Professor Gid °converted Social Philosophy Into De Scriptive Social Science." An Eminent Modern Sociologist Thus Concisely Summarizes The Fun Damental Contribution Of One Of The Most Prom Inent Participants In That General Intellectual Movement Which Brought About The Transforma Tion Of ...

Spiritual Exercises
Spiritual Exercises (ejercicios Espirituales). The Jesuits Have Occupied A Prominent Place In The Intellectual And Spiritual Life Of The World Since Their Foundation Nearly 400 Years Ago. Their Founder, Saint Ignatius Loyola, As Well As The Jesuits Themselves Have Always Attributed Whatever Of Influence They Had To The Formation Of ...

Spiritualism
Spiritualism, The Movement, Based On Belief In The Genuine Character Of Spiritualistic Phenomena, That Originated In 1848, In The Ex Periences Of The Fox Family Of Hydes Ville, N. Y., And Which Within A .few Years Spread Over The United States And England And Later Over The Civilized World. Also ...

Spitteler
Spitteler, Carl, Poet: B. Liestal Near Basel, Switzerland, 24 April 1845. His Father Was An Official Of The Government, Being Federal Secretary Of The Treasury From 1849-56. Young Spitteler Attended The Gymnasium At Basel, Be Ing Fortunate In Having Among His Teachers Such Men As Wilhelm Wackernagel, The Great .phi ...

Spitzbergen
Spitzbergen, Spits-wgen, A Group Of Islands In The Arctic Ocean, Between Barents Sea On The East And Greenland Sea On The West, About 650 Miles North Of The North Cape In Norway. They Lie Between The Parallels 30' And 30' N., And Are About 450 Miles East Of Northeast Foreland ...

Spleen
Spleen, A Vascular Abdominal Organ Which, In Man At Least, Is Now Generally Re Garded By Physiologists As Forming One Of The Ductless Glands, And Which Is Accordingly Classed With The Thyroid Gland, Thymus, And Suprarenal Capsules. All Vertebrates — With The Exception Of The Lancelet, And Probably The Lampreys, ...

Spokane
Spokane, Wash., City, County-seat Of Spokane County, And The Commercial And Finan Cial Centre Of The Territory Known As The In Land Empire, Comprising Eastern Washington, Northern Idaho And Western Montana. Spo Kane To The Indian Tribe Of That Name Meant "children Of The Sun." The Place Was Origi Nally ...