STATE CONTROL, Growth of. I. The State, an organized political entity, possessing and exercising sovereign powers, has always since its establishment controlled more or less completely the activities of its members, social, political, economic and moral, the extent of such control depending upon a number of fact ors, such as character of government, state of civilization, classes of society and political and social ideals. States may be divided into two classes, according to whether government is completely centralized or not. In completely centralized governments, such as Great Britain, France and Italy, the right of control is en trusted to the national authorities while the local subdivisions such as counties and munici palities act as their agents. In the federalized form of government, such as the United States and Germany, the sovereign powers are par celed out between the national and local organizations, each government being independ ent of the other within its own especial field. With respect to growth, state control has ex hibited two marked tendencies: first, that of the extension of the field of control entrusted to national authorities at the expense of the local subdivisions, and second, extension of control exercised by the government at the expense of the individual liberty of its citizens and mem bers.
IL In general there are four distinct theories upon which the control of tlp state over indi viduals and groups of individuals is based, viz., the divine right of kings, staatsgemacht or force, the social contract, and social welfare. The first of these fundamental theories is aptly illustrated by the reign of Louis XIV of France and his slogan, el'etat c'est moi.)) During the past generation the theory was expounded and practised by the former emperor of Germany, Kaiser Wilhelm II, with what results the world knows too well. The second theoretical basis, staatsgemacht or the doctrine of force, is in practice, although not in theory, closely associ ated with the first, for the purpose of giving a religious sanction to the dominating influence of the state over its citizens. The third theory, that of the social contract, first formulated by Jean Jacques Rousseau in his brilliant but now generally discredited
the state is held to be the natural development of the family and like it exists not for its own ends but for the benefit of its individual mem bers. According to this theory, the state should exercise control over its members whenever and wherever such control results in the general welfare. To determine the scope and extent within which state control may be wisely ex ercised for the good of its citizens, representa tive governments have become a practical necessity.
III. During the Middle Ages and even well into the period generally denominated modern times, all the more important European nations were either absolute or limited monarchies and their governments were dominated by a group of courtiers who professedly believed in the divine right of the kings under whom they served. As the rank and file of the citizens grew in political wisdom they began to discuss the functions of government and the proper limitations of public control over private rights. The first great movement along these lines began in England in the early part of the 17th century and culminated in the overthrow of the Stuarts and the establishment of the Puri tan Commonwealth in 1649. Unfortunately for the progress of civil liberty the Commonwealth proved unequal to the task imposed upon it, and it was not until the revolution of 1688 that the foundations of parliamentary government and its concomitant, a decent regard for the rights of individual men, were securely laid. From this date onward in England and the English-speaking countries the evolutionary theory of government gradually grew to be the predominating one, and with its growth the policy of economic liberalism became firmly established. As a result of the forces set loose by the American and French revolutions, despite the brief militarism of Napoleon and of the re actionary movement led by Metternich and sup ported by the Holy Alliance, the century begin ning with the year 1776 may be characterized as the Golden Age of political and civil liberty in every domain of life. During this period mercantilism as a national policy was over thrown, the old time restrictions on trade and industry were largely abrogated, and men were more nearly to seek their own for tunes and to live their own lives without in terference by the. government than ever before in the history of the civilized world.