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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25

Sponge
Sponge, The Horny Skeleton, Formed Of Keratose, Or I Spongin, Produced By Certain Ani Mals Living N The Sea And Of Very Low Grade In The Scale Of Life. Down To A Quite Recent Period They Were Classified As Colonial Protozoa, The Lowest Group Of Animals; But All Naturalists Now ...

Spontaneous Generation
Spontaneous Generation, The Doctrine That Living Matter May Originate Spon Taneously, That Is, Out Of Non-living Matter. The Sudden Appearance Of Living Things In Dead Bodies, As Of Maggots In Flesh, And Mold On Vegetables, Was Formerly Accounted For By Re Garding Them As The Direct Products Of The Decay ...

Spoonbill
Spoonbill, A Wading-bird Of The Fam ,ily Plataleidce, Closely Related To The Ibises, From Which The Group Differs Principally In Its Straight Grooved Bill, Which Is Quaintly Flattened And Expanded At The End. The Dime Genera, Platalea, Ajaja And Platibis, Comprise About Eight Species Found In All Warm Countries. The ...

Sporophyte
Sporophyte, Evolution Of. Some Botanists Are Still Disputing In Regard To Those Earliest Stages In The Evolution Of The Sporophyte Which Are Found In The Alga And Fungi; But There Is Complete Agreement That In All Plants From The Liverworts And Mosses To The Sunflowers And Orchids The Sporophyte Be ...

Sporozoa
Sporozoa, A Group Of Protozoa, Ranked As A Class Or More Recently As A Phylum, Which Is Composed Exclusively Of Parasitic Species. They Are Characterized By Complete Absence Of Structures Common In Free-living Protozoa, Viz. (1) Locomotor Processes, Pseudopodia, Flagella And Cilia, (2) Openings For Taking In Solid Food Or ...

Sports In Plants
Sports In Plants, A Term In Biology Denoting An Individual Which Differs More Or Less Markedly From The Type Or Parent Species; An Aberrant Form. It Is Distinguished From Gmonstrosityl By Its Ability To Transmit Its Aber Rant Character Either Sexually Or Asexually To Offspring; Whereas Monstrosities Properly So Called ...

Spotswood
Spotswood, Spots'wild, Alexander, American Colonial Governor : B. Tangier, Africa, 1676; D. Annapolis, Md., 7 June 1740. He En Tered The English Army In Early Youth, Fought At The Battle Of Blenheim, Was Deputy Quarter Master-general Under The Duke Of Marlborough And In 1710 Was Appointed Governor Of Virginia. His ...

Spottsylvania Court House
Spottsylvania Court House, Battles Of. The Battle Of The Wilderness (q.v.) Was Fought 5 And 6 May 1864, And A Reconnois Sance Made By General Birney's Division Down The Orange Plank Road, On The Morning Of The 7th, Developed The Fact That The Confederates Had Fallen Back To Their Intrenched ...

Sprague
Sprague, Frank Julian, American Elec Trical Engineer And Inventor: B. Milford, Conn., 25 July 1857. While At High School In North Adams, Mass., He Won Competitive Appointment To United States Naval Academy, From Which He Graduated With Honors In 1878. He Then Became Interested In Electrical Inventions And Took A ...

Sprague_2
Sprague, Homer Baxter, American Edu Cator: B. Sutton, Miss., 19 Oct. 1829. He Was Graduated From Yale In 1852, Studied At The Yale Law School And In 1854 Was Admitted To The Bar. He Entered The Union Army In 1861, Was Commissioned Colonel In 1864 And In 1866 Was Mustered ...

Sprain
Sprain, The Partial Displacement Or Twisting Of A Joint With Stretching, And More Or Less Injury To The Articulating Apparatus; The Ligaments, Tendons And Their Sheaths Being All Involved In The Injury, While Sometimes Even Small Portions Of The Articulating Processes Of Bones Are Separated. All Joints Are Liable To ...

Spring
Spring, An Outflow Of Water From The Earth, Or A Stream Of Water At The Place Of Its Source. Springs Have Their Origin In The Water Which Falls Upon The Earth In The Form Of Rain Or Snow And Sinks Through Porous Soils Till It Arrives At A Stratum Impervious ...

Spring Hill
Spring Hill, Engagement At. After General Sherman Had Started From Atlanta, On His March To The Sea (q.v.), General Hood, Commanding The Confederate Army Of Tennes See, Marched Northward From Florence, Ala., 19 Nov. 1864, To Drive General Thomas From Nashville And Back To The Ohio River. Thomas, Who Proposed ...

Spring_2
Spring, In Mechanics, An Elastic Body, Structure Or Contrivance, That Yields Under Force Or Stress, But Returns To Its Former Posi Tion Or Shape When The Stress Is Withdrawn. A Strip Of Soft India-rubber Exhibits Great Elastic Qualities, But Is Not Durable Enough For Use In Machinery, And, Therefore, Springs ...

Springfield
Springfield, Mo., City, Of Green County, On The Saint Louis And San Francisco And The Kansas City, Fort Smith And Missouri Railroads, About 130 Miles South Of Jefferson City, The Capital Of The State. In The Early Part Of The Civil War There Occurred In The City And Vicinity Several ...

Springfield
Springfield, Ill., City, County-seat Of Sangamon County And Capital Of The State, Is In The Centre Of The Great Corn-belt, On The Illinois Central, The Chicago And Alton, The Chicago, Peoria And Saint Louis, The Wabash, The Cincinnati, Hamilton And Dayton And The Baltimore And Ohio Railroads, 185 Miles South ...

Springfield_2
Springfield (mo.), Military Opera Tions At. As The Central Point Of Southwest Ern Missouri, Springfield Was An Important Place In Military Operations During The Civil War. After The Engagement At Carthage (q.v.), 5 July 1861, Colonel Sigel Retreated To Spring Field, Where He Was Joined By Gen. Nathaniel Lyon (q.v.) ...

Springs
Springs, Elastic Contrivances Of Any Kind Having The Power Of Recovering, By Their Elas Ticity, Their Natural State After Being Bent Or Otherwise Forced — Interposed Between Two Ob Jects In Order To Impart Or Check Motion Or Permit Them To Yield Relatively To Each Other. A Common Variety Of ...

Springs_2
Springs, Natural Outlets By Which Ground Water Reaches The Surface. The More Common Small Springs Usually Result From The Outcrop Of A Nonporous Layer Below A Porous Stratum, The Water Which Soaks Down Through The Porous Layer Being Forced To Move Laterally Along The Top Of The Impervious Bed Until ...

Spurgeon
Spurgeon, Sper'jim, Charles Haddon, English Baptist Preacher: B. Kelvedon, Essex, 19 June 1834; D. Mentone, France, 21 Jan. 1892. He Was The Son Of A Congregationalist Minister And Was Educated At Colchester And Maidstone. In 1849 He Was Appointed Usher In A School At Newmarket And Soon After Engaged In ...

Spuyten Duyvil
Spuyten Duyvil (spi'tn Di-v11) Creek, A Tidal Channel Connecting The Hudson River With The Harlem And Forming The North Ern Boundary Of Manhattan Island, New York. Its Name Is Derived From The Dutch Aspyt Den Duivep (in Spite Of The Devil), And Is Sup Posed To Have Been Derived From ...

Square Root
Square Root. The Square Root Of A Number Is One Of Its Two Equal Factors. It Is Indicated By The Fractional Exponent (1/2) Placed At The Right, And Above The Number, Thus 16i, Or By The Radical Sign ( The Two Equal Factors Of 16 Are 4 And' 4, Either ...

Squash
Squash, A Garden Vegetable, The Fruit Of Several Species Of The Genus Cucurbita (order Cucurbitacea). They Are Vine-like Tendril-bear Ing Herbs, With Large Rough Leaves On Long Hol Low Stalks, Have Large Moncecious Yellow Flowers Borne Singly In The Axils Of The Leaves, And Fol Lowed By Hard Fruits Of ...

Squatter Sovereignty
Squatter Sovereignty, A Term Designating The Right Of Occupation Acquired Through Undisturbed Possession Of Public Lands For A Certain Number Of Years By Settlers Originally Unauthorized. Public Lands Or Public Domain Belonging Either To The Nation Or Inch Vidual States, From The Necessities Of Govern Ment And The Usual Operations ...

Squid
Squid, Any 10-armed Cuttlefish (q.v.; Also Cephalopoda), Not A Sepia Or Spirula (q.v.). The Squids Are Divisible Into Several Groups And Range In Size From Less Than An Inch (idiosepion) To 75 Feet Or More In Length, When The Arms Are Outstretched. They Are Found In All Oceans, And Most ...

Squirrel
Squirrel, A Typical Member Of The Ro Dent Family Sciuridce. The Squirrels Form The Sub-family Sciurince, The Members Of Which Are Of Slender Form And Have Long Bushy Tails. All Squirrels Have Well-developed Clavicles And The Two Bones Of The Lower Leg Well-developed And Distinct; The Premolar Teeth Are Two ...

Stair
Stair, A Succession Of Steps Affording Means For A Person On Foot To Get From A Lower To A Higher Level. There Are Two Main Forms Of This, One Composed Of A Series Of Solid Blocks Generally Touching One Another At One Edge, As When A Series Of Squared Stones ...

Stalactite
Stalactite And Stalagmite, De Posits Of Lime Hanging From The Roof (stalac Tites) Or Rising From The Floor (stalagmites) Of A Cavern. Stalactitic Formations Occur Chiefly In Long And More Or Less Fantastic Masses Suspended From The Roofs Of Caverns In Limestone Rocks. Stalactites Appear To Be Continually Forming; Water ...

Stamford
Stamford, Stim'ford, Conn., City In Fairfield County, On Long Island Sound And Mill River, And On The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad, About 22 Miles South West Of Bridgeport And 30 Miles Northeast Of New York. The Harbor Is Large Enough For Large Sound Vessels. The City Has ...

Stammering
Stammering, A Defect Of Speech Due To Failure In Co-ordinate Action Of Certain Muscles And Their Appropriate Nerves. It Is Analogous To Some Kinds Of Lameness, To Cramp Or Spasm, Or Partial Paralysis Of The Arms, Wrists, Hands And Fingers, Such As Is Sometimes Attendant Upon Certain Exercises; For Speech ...

Stamps
Stamps, Postage. The Boldness Of Con Ception In Suggesting A Penny (two Cents) Post Age For Great Britain For Letters Of Half An Ounce Showed A Broadness Of Mind Well Worthy The Title Of "sir" It Brought Later On Mr. Rowland Hill. Railroads, It Is True, Were Making Travel Both ...

Standard Oil Company
Standard Oil Company, The. Two Very Thrifty Young Men, John D. Rocke Feller And An Englishman Named M. B. Clark, After Making Small Savings From Their Meagre Salaries For Years And With Close Financing, De Termined To Pool Their Little Capital. They Started A Produce Commission Business In Cleveland, Ohio, ...

Standards
Standards, Bureau Of, A Subdivision Of The Department Of Commerce Of The United States, Authorized To Deal With Standards Of Measurement, Standard Values Of Constants, Standards Of Quality, Standards Of Mechanical Performance And Standards Of Practice. Its Testing Laboratories Are Located At Washington, D. C. The Bureau Occupies Somewhat The ...

Standing Stones
Stones, Standing, Or Stone Circles, Are Found In Numbers Throughout Great Britain, To A Less Extent In Norway And Sweden, And A Few In France And Northern India. The Typical Stone Circle Of Scotland, England And Ireland Consists Of Rough, Un Hewed Stone Set Up At Comparatively Equal Dis Tances ...

Standish
Standish, Myles, English Colonist In America: B. Lancashire, About 1584; D. Dux Bury, New England, 3 Oct. 1656. Prior To 1603 He Bad Gained A Lieutenancy In The English Force Then Serving In The Netherlands, But After The Truce Of 1609 Joined The Pilgrim Or Sepa Ratist Colony At Leyden, ...

Stanislaus
Stanislaus, Stan'is-las, Or Stamm Las I, Leszcynski, King Of Po Land: B. Lembcri-, Galicia, 20 Oct. 1677; D. 23 Feb. 1766. In 1704, Being Then Woywode Of Posnania, And General Of Great Poland, He Was Deputed By The Assembly Of The States At War Saw To Wait Upon Charles Xii ...

Stanley
Stanley, Stan'ff, Arthur Penrhyn, Eng Lish Anglican Clergyman And Author, Popularly .known As Dean Stanley: B. Alderley, Cheshire, 13 Dec. 1815; D. London, 18 July 1881. He Was Educated First At Rugby, Where He Conceived An Abiding Love And Veneration For Dr. Thomas Arnold (q.v.) And Gained A Unique Position ...

Stanoyevich
Stanoyevich, Milivoy Stoyan, Ser Bian Essayist And Author : B. Koprivnica, Kraina, Serbia, 14 Feb. 1882. He Studied At Belgrade University, Where He Successfully Competed For Academic Prizes In Literary Essays. He Graduated From That Institution In 1907, And Was Immediately Appointed Professor Ad Interim Of Modern Languages At Zajaar ...

Stanton
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, American Reformer : B. Johnstown, N. Y., 12 Nov. 1815; D. New York, 26 Oct. 1902. She Was Graduated From Emma Willard Seminary, Troy, N. Y., In 1832 And Was Married To Henry Brewster Stanton (q.v.) In 1840. Her Attention Was First Attracted• To The Disabilities Of ...

Stanton_2
Stanton, Robert Brewster, American Civil And,mining Engineer: B. Woodville, Miss., 5 Aug. 1846. He Graduated At Miami Uni Versity — A.b. 1871; A.m., 1878; (hon. A.m. University Of Wooster, 1885) ; Was Resident En Cincinnati Southern Railroad, 1874-80; Vison Engineer Union Pacific Railway, 1880 84. Since 1884 Has Been In ...

Star Spangled Banner
Star-spangled Banner, The, A Patriotic Song Composed By Francis Scott Key 14 Sept. 1814, And Now Recognized Throughout The United States As The National Anthem, Al Though It Is Not Such In Legal Fact, Congress Having Repeatedly Rejected Proposals — One As Recently As 1914— To Make A Declaration To ...

Star Of Seville
Star Of Seville, The ((la Es Trella De Sevilla'), Known Also As 'sancho Ortiz De Roelas,' The Title Of A Successful Adaptation By Trigueros (1802), Is Commonly Attributed To Lope De Vega (1562-1635), But Is Of Doubtful Authorship. One Scene Contains A Reterence To De Guevara's 'el Diablo Cojuelo' First ...

Star Of The West
Star Of The West. At Sunset 5 Jan. 1861, The Merchant Steam-vessel Star Of The West Sailed From New York To Supply And Re Inforce Major Robert Anderson, At Fort Sum Ter, Charleston Harbor. She Was Commanded By Capt. John Mcgowan, Was Unarmed, And Car Ried A Large Quantity Of ...

Starch
Starch, A Proximate Principle Exclusively Of The Vegetable Kingdom With The Formula Co11,00,0. The Value Of N Has Not Been De Termined But All Experiments Go To Show That It Is Large — Not Less Than 100, And That, Therefore, The Molecular Weight Of Starch Is At Least 32,400. It ...

Starfish
Starfish, Any Echinoderm Of The Group Asteroidea (see Echinodermata), In Which A Pentagonal Disc Forms The Central Body, Whence Radiate Five Or More Pointed Arms, Containing Prolongations Of The Stomach, As Well As Gestive Glands, Reproductive Organs, Etc. The Mouth Is On The Inferior Surface Of The Disc And The ...

Starl
Starl, Madame De, Properly Staitl Holstein, Stit'el-h61'stin (fr. Stiel 61-staii), Anne Louise Germaine Necker, Baroness De, French Authoress: B. Paris, 22 April 1766; D. There, 14 July 1817. She Was The Only Child Of Jacques Necker, Swiss Banker And Minister Of Finance To Louis Xvi. Her Mother Was Swiss (see ...

Starling
Starling, A Field-bird Of The Family Sturnidee, Known By The Compressed Sharp Bill, The Long And Pointed Wings And The Short Tail. The Tarsi Are Stout And Covered In Front With Broad Scales. The Toes Are Also Elongated And Strong, The Hinder Toe Being Largely Developed. The Common Starling (sturtius ...

Stars
Stars, A Designation Familiarly Applied To All The Heavenly Bodies Which Look Like Points Of Light. This Designation Includes Five Of The Planets, Mercury, Mars, Venus, Jupiter And Saturn. In Scientific Language The Term Is Ap Plied Only To Those Bodies Which Seem Fixed On The Celestial Sphere, And Are, ...

Starved Rock
Starved Rock, A High, Isolated Pinnacle On The South Side Of The Valley Of Illinois Be Tween Utica And Ottawa, La Salle County, Ill. Its Name Indicates The Fate Of The Last Of The Illini Indians Who Were Besieged By Invading Iroquois Indians Until Their Sup Plies Gave Out. This ...

State
State. Political Scientists Of The Present Day Distinguish Sharply Between The Idea Con Noted By The Term "state" And That Indicated By The Word "government? By "state" Is Meant The Body-politic Abstractly Considered,— The En Tity That Possesses And Exercises The Sovereign Political Will. By "government" Is Meant The Mechanism ...

State College Of Washing
State College Of Washing Ton, The, Located At Pullman, Wash. It Was Founded In 1890 In Ptirsuance Of The National Land Grant Act Of 1862 Endowing Agricultural And Mechanical Colleges. The National Govern Ment Granted 190,000 Acres Of Land, The Proceeds Of The Sale Of Which Will Constitute A Per ...

State Control
State Control, Growth Of. I. The State, An Organized Political Entity, Possessing And Exercising Sovereign Powers, Has Always Since Its Establishment Controlled More Or Less Completely The Activities Of Its Members, Social, Political, Economic And Moral, The Extent Of Such Control Depending Upon A Number Of Fact Ors, Such As ...

State Department
State Department, One Of The 10 Executive Departments Of The United States Government. It Is Presided Over By The Sec Retary Of State (q.v.), Who Is A Member Of The Cabinet, And Next In Line To The Vice-president For The Presidency. The Department Was Estab Lished By Act 'of Congress, ...

State Government
State Government, American. °the States?) Said Lincoln, "have Their Status In The Union And They Have No Other Legal Status." The Powers Reserved To The States, Their Obligations To One Another And To The Union, And The Obligations Of The Union To Them: All Are Provided For In The. Constitution ...

State Governments
State Governments, Character Istics Of. As A Federation, The Government Of The United States Comprises The National Gov Ernment Controlled By Its Legislative And Ad Ministrative Departments, And The Separate Gov Ernments Of The 48 States Of The Union. Under The National Constitution, Each State May Or Ganize Its Government ...

State Systems Of Education
State Systems Of Education. The Government Of The United States Has Never Exercised Control Or Supervision Over Public Education. The American People Were Not Prepared For A National System Of Education When The Foundation Of The National Govern Ment Was Established By The Adoption Of The Constitution Of The United ...

State Universities
State Universities, The. General The History Of Education Hardly Offers A Parallel To The Rise And Growth Of State Supported Institutions For Higher Learning The United States During The Latter Part Of The 19th And The First Decade Of The 20th Century. In 1875 20 Such Institutions Had Been Founded ...

Staten
Staten (stien) Island, N. Y., In The Southeastern Part Of The State, Is Separated From Long Island By The Narrows And New York Bay, From Manhattan Island By New York Bay, From New Jersey By Kill Von Kull, Newark Bay, Arthur Kill And Staten Island Sound. Staten Island Was Discovered ...

States
States, Admission Of. No Specific Form Of Procedure Is Provided In The National Con Stitution For The Admission Of New States To The Union. Different Methods Of Admission Have Marked The Addition Of The 35 States To The Original 13. For Admission, However, Certain Conditions Must Exist. The Community Must ...

States General
States-general, The Name Given In France 611 1789 To The General Assemblies Of The Deputies Of The Three Orders Of The Nation, The Clergy, Nobility And The Third Estate (bour Geoisie). When Peers Were Present It Was Not As Forming A Separate Body But As The Representatives Of Their Order. ...

States_2
States, Classification Of. States Or Na Tions May Be Classified According To: (a) The Extent Of The Political State; (b) The Structure Of The Political State; (c) The Structure Of The Government. In Political Science A State Is Understood To Be A Body Of People Inhabiting A Given Territory, Organized ...

Statistical Method
Statistical Method, The. The Word "statistics" Was Coined About The Middle Of The 18th Century By Gottfried Achenwall, A Professor At The University Of Marburg. Achenwall Derived The Term From The Italian Word Gstatista,° Meaning Statesman, Which, In Its Turn, Came From The Latin "status," Mean Ing State. E. A. ...