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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25

Succession
Succession. Succession Is The Transmis Sion Of Property Either Real Or Personal At The Death Of The Owner, By Rules Laid Down By Law, In Distinction To That By Will Made By The De Ceased. The Term °succession" Is Used In Law To Cover Both The Technical Word °descent," Which ...

Succession Wars
Succession Wars Are Wars Which Arise From Claims For The Possession Of The Crown On The Occasion Of A Sovereign Dying Without Undisputed Legal Heirs. In Modern European History The Most Important Of These Struggles Were Those Of The Spanish Succession (1700-13), And Of The Anstrain Succession (1740-48). War Of ...

Suckers
Suckers, Soft-rayed Teleostomous Fishes Of The Genus Catostomus And Related Genera Be Longing To The Family Catostomidce (q.v.). The I Family Is Extremely Characteristic Of The Fresh Waters Of North America, Where All But Two Of The 60 Or More Species Are Found, Replacing In Our Fauna The Carps Of ...

Sudermann
Sudermann, Hermann, German Drama Tist And Novelist: B. Matziken (near Heydekrug, East Prussia, 30 Sept. 1857). His Father Was A Brewer, Descended From A Family Of Dutch Mennonites, One Of Whom Was The Didactic And Moralistic Author Daniel Sudermann (1550 1632), Who Wrote In German. Hermann Suder Mann Attended The ...

Sudworth
Sudworth, George Bishop, American Dendrologist And Botanist: B. Kingston, Wis., 31 Aug. 1862. He Was Graduated At The Uni Versity Of Michigan (department Of Literature And Science) 1885; Instructor Of Botany In State Agricultural College Of Michigan 1886; Botanist In United States Agricultural Department From 1889 To 1898 And Dendrologist ...

Suez Canal
Suez Canal. This Great Canal, Which May Be Said To Have Converted Africa Into An Island, Runs For Nearly 100 Miles From Port Said On The Mediterranean To Suez On The Red Sea, Forming A Channel Navigable For Large Ves Sels Between The Two. It Is Not The First Work ...

Suffolk
Suffolk (va.), Operations Around And Siege Of. Soon After The Occupation Of Norfolk And Portsmouth By The Union Troops, 10 May 1862, A Force Was Pushed Out To Occupy Suffolk, 25 Miles Southwest Of Portsmouth By The Seaboard And Roanoke Railroad, And At The Head Of Nansemond River, By Which ...

Sufism
Sufism, Soo'fizm Or So'fizm (arab. Tasawwuf, Being Or Becoming A Sufi), Is Mo Hammedan Mysticism. It Derives Its Name From The Arabic Sufi, Mystic, "clad In Wool" (from Suf, Wool), Because Most Of These Mystics Clad Themselves In Woolen Garments Or Carry A Woolen Headdress. Some Philologists Connect The Word ...

Suggestion
Suggestion, In Psychology, A Term Which In Its Widest Sense Signifies An Intimation, A Hint, A Prompting, The Abrupt Introduction Of An Idea Into Consciousness. It Is Also Employed As Synonymous With Association. But, More Specifically, It Is A Method Of Effecting Belief, Whether The Conditions Of The Subject Be ...

Suicide
Suicide, The Act Of Intentionally Destroy Ing One's Own Life, Whether Sane Or Insane— The Act In Itself, Accompanied By The Purpose, Is Suicide; The Condition Of Sanity Or Insanity Bears On The Question Of Responsibility. In Con Sidering The Causes Which Lead To Suicide It May Be Well To ...

Sulla
Sulla, Lucius Cornelius, Roman Dictator: B. 138 A.c.; D. 78 B.c. He Received A Good Education, But Was Notorious From His Youth Upward For His Excessive Dissipation And Debauchery. He Served With Distinction Under Marius In The Jugurthine (107 B.c.) And Cim Brian (104-2) Wars, And In 93 Was Chosen ...

Sullivan
Sullivan, &a Arthur Seymour, Eng Lish Composer: B. London, 13 May 1842; D. 22' Nov. 1900. His Father Was A Military Band Master, And Taught His Son Before Nine Years Of Age To Play Every Wind-instrument Used In The Band, Thus Laying The Foundation Of The Wide Orchestral Knowledge Afterward ...

Sullivan_2
Sullivan, John Lawrence, American Pugilist: B. Boston, Mass., 15 Oct. 1858; D. West Abington, Mass., 2 Feb. 1918. This Re Markable Man, Who Has Not Inaptly Been Described As <
Sulphanilic Acid
Sulphanilic Acid, Para-aminoben , 411 Zene Sulphonic Acid, C4i-14 Sa Hp., Or, / N H, C4114 \ /, Was First Prepared By Gerhardt In 1845. It Is Usually Obtained By Heating Ani Line With Fuming Sulphuric Acid At 180° C., For Several Hours. Upon Pouring The Reaction Mix Ture Into ...

Sulphide Copper Ores
Sulphide Copper Ores. The Prin Cipal Sulphide Copper Ores Of The United States Are Chalcocite Or Copper Glance (cu,s), Con Taining 79.8 Per Cent Of Metallic Copper ; Enargite (cuaass,), 48.3 Per Cent; Covellite (cus), 66.4 Per Cent; Chalcopyrite Or Copper Pyrites (cufes,), 34.5 Per Cent; Bornite Or Peacock Ore ...

Sulphonal
Sulphonal, Diethylsulphone Dimethyl / So2c211‘ Methane \c , Was Discovered By Ch, \ Baumann In 1886, And Introduced Into Medicine As An Active Hypnotic In It Is Prepared By The Condensation Of A Mixture Of Ethylmercaptan And Acetone In The Presence Of Hydrochloric Acid Or Zinc Chloride. Under These Conditions ...

Sulphonic Acids
Sulphonic Acids, A Series Of Adds, Both Organic And Inorganic, Distinguished By Containing The Monovalent Radical, So,.oh, Also Written, So.h. The Inorganic Mem Bers Of The Group May Be Regarded As Derived From S02.0h.h By Replacing The Final H By A Monovalent Atom Or Radical. Such As Chlorine; Or, More ...

Testing Of Steel
Steel, Testing Of. Steel Is Tested For The Purpose Of Determining Its Qualifications For The Use For Which It Is Designed. The Test May Not Be Simply As To Its Strength, But Also To Obtain A Measure Of Several Other Important Qualities Such As Malleability, Ductility And Hard Ness, Which ...

The Star Spangled Banner
The Star-spangled Banner. Ohl Say Can You See By The Dawn's Early Light, What So Proudly We Hail'd At The Twilight's Last Gleaming, Whose Broad Stripes And Bright Stars Through The Perilous Fight, O'er The Ramparts We Watched Were So Gallantly Streaming? And The Rockets Red Glare, And Bombs Bursting ...

Theories Of Hardening Steel
Steel, Theories Of Hardening. That Steel Has The Property Of Hardening When Suddenly Cooled From A Bright Cherry Heat Has Been Known For Centuries. The Origin Of Steel Hardening Cannot Be Traced Definitely, But Homer Refers To It And Pliny, The Younger, Describes A Method Which, In Its Main Points, ...

Toad
Toad, A Toad (scaphio Pus Holbrookii), Resembling The Common Toad In General Appearance But Differing From It So Greatly In Structure As To Be Placed In A Distinct Family (scaphiopidtz). They Have Teeth On Both The Upper Jaw And The Vomer Bone; The Bodies Of The Vertebra: Are Cupped In ...

Tonic Sol Fa Sol Fa
Sol-fa, Tonic Sol Fa, Or Movable Doh, System, A Modern Scientific Method Of Classifying, Ex Plaining And Teaching The Facts Of Music, Of Especial Value In The Acquisition Of The Art Of Sight-singing. The System Proceeds On The Principle Of Giving The Chief Prominence To The Fact That There Is ...

Trotting Horses
Trotting Horses. Trotting.- The °foundation° Horses Or First Sires Of The American Trotting Track Were The Imported Stallions Messenger And Justin Morgan (former Died 1808; Latter 1821). Hambletonian, A Descendant Of Messenger, Headed A Great Family Of Thoroughbreds, And The Justin Morgan Breed Includes Many Noted Trot Ters Of This ...

Ture Of Crucible
Ture Of Crucible. The Next Great Inventions Which Made For Progress In The Iron Industry Were Those Of Henry Cort (b. 1740; D. 1800), Who First Made Use Of Grooved Rolls In 1784, And In 1785 Pro Duced The Dry Puddling Process. The Invention Of Puddling Was Without Doubt The ...

V Immediate Remedies Proposed
V. Immediate Remedies Proposed By Poraries To Solve The Social Problems Created By The Industrial Revolution. I. Economic Liberalism.— The First Great Type Of Reform Proposed To Meet The New Conditions Was That Which Has Been Designated By Recent Economic Historians As "economic Liberalism," But Which Is More Generally Known ...

Vi The Rise Of
Vi. The Rise Of Present-day Social Theories And Social Reform 1. The Historical Background.— Before 1850 The New Industrial Order Had Thoroughly Taken Hold Only Of England But Had Af Fected France To A Considerable Degree. The Other European Countries Were Little Affected By The Industrial Revolution Until The Last ...

W A Bentley
W. A. Bentley, Author Of (snow And Snow Crystals.' See Guelder Rose. A Name Applied To Several White-fruited Plants, Among Them The Rubiaceous Chiococca Albs Of Tropical America, A Climbing Plant With Yellow Flowers And White Berries. It Has Medicinal Properties, And The Root, Known As Calunca-root, Was Used As ...

Wt Sm
W(t Sm (t2— T) And From This We Easily Find W(t •m(t2—t) In The Actual Conduct Of An Experiment Of This Kind There Are Many Difficulties To Overcome, And Many Corrections To Be Estimated And Ap Plied. There Is Always More Or Less Communi Cation Of Heat Between The Apparatus ...

Yachting Records
Yachting Records. Our Earliestyachting Records Take Us Back To 1801 When Capt. George Crowninshield Of Salem, Mass., Got Christopher Turner Of That Town To Build Him The Jefferson, A 22-ton Sloop Yacht. This Craft In 1812 Became A Privateer, Then For Many Years A Fisherman. George's Brother, Benjamin, Then Secretary ...

The Bessemer Process Steel
Steel, The Bessemer Process. The Bessemer Process Is Employed To Manu Facture From The Crude Product Of The Blast Furnace A Comparatively Low Grade Of Steel, Which Is At The Same Time Better Suited For Certain Purposes Than That Manufactured By Any Other Process. It Does Not Seek To Make ...

The Preservation Of Structural
Steel, The Preservation Of Structural. Introduction.— The Treat Ment Necessary To Secure The Preservation Of The Steel Used In Buildings, Bridges And Other Engineering Structures Is Of Quite As Much Im Portance As The Original Construction If The Structure Is To Stand The Test Of Time. The Durability Of A ...