TOLSTOY, COUNT Lyof Nikolaievitch, Russian novelist and social refornier; b.
Yasnaya Polyana, government of Tula, 9 Sept. 1828; d. Astapova, 20 Nov. 1910. He studied languages and law at the University of ICazan. In 1851 he went to the Caucasus district as an ensign of artillery and he served in the defense of Sevastopol during the Crimean War. To this period of his career belong his earliest literary works, among them the autobiographi cal (Childhood, Boyhood and Youth,' the brilliant descriptions of the Crimean aunpaign entitled 'Sevastopol in December 1854,) (Se vastopol in May 1855' and 'Sevastopol in Au gust 1855' and (The Invasion.) He left the army on the conclusion of the war and went to Saint Petersburg, where he made the acquaint ance of •Turgenev (q.v.) and other distin guished Russians and soon after he published (The Snowstorm' and (Two Hussars.' His first foreign journey was made in 1857 and marks an epoch in his spiritual history and on his return he retired to his estate to live a simpler life. He was greatly interested in the condition of the peasantry and founded a free village school on his property, for which he prepared reading and other textbooks himself. At the end of two years, however, the school was closed, both on account of opposition of the government inspectors asid also the lack of interest among the masters and pupils. Later when he asiced permission to reopen his school the government flatly refused. His 'Family Happiness) was issued in 1859 and was soon fol lowed by 'Three Deaths' (1859), (Polikuschka' (1860) and others. In 1862 he married the daughter of a Moscow physician. The next period of his life saw the production of the two works upon which his literary reputation chiefly rests, 'War and Peace) (1865-68), dealing with Napoleon's invasion of Russia, and (Anna Karenina' (1877), a powerfully realistic study of human passion and its effects. Soon after the completion of the latter novel Tolstoy be gan to develop his characteristic views of re ligion and its application to individual and social life. He believes that the Sermon on the Mount literally interpreted is the supreme law of the Christian life and he lays special stress on the precept, °Resist not evil.° His system has much in common with the anarchist-com munism of his fellow-countryman, Kropotkin, but its peculiar religious basis gives it a unique character. In 1901 he was formally excommuni
cated by the Holy Synod of the Russian Or thodox Church and in a reply 'to the edict of excommunication he clearly enunciated his religious and theological views. These include the denial of the Trinity, of the deity of Jesus and his vicarious atonement, of orthodox conceptions of the future world, of every land of sacramentalism and similar dogmas and are substantially identical with those of modem spiritual Unitarianism. Among the works of his latest period, in which his religious and social views are more or less expoimded, are the following: (What the People Live By' (Eng land 1889) ; (What to Do) (England 1889): (My Confession' ; (My Religion' ; (The Death of Joan Ilyitch' (1886) ; (Where Love is there God is Also); (The Kingdom of God is Within You' ; (The Kreutzer Sonata) (1890); (Work while ye have the Light). (England 1890), a tale of the early Christians; 'The Power of Darkness,) a drama; (The Fruits of Enlightenment' (1891), a satirical comedy;
and Servant' ; (Politics and Religion' ;
(1894), on the i Franco-Russian alliance, and
is Art?' (1898). (Resurrection) (1900) is a powerful novel of the same type as
Karenina.' There are American translations by Dole, Hapgood and others (22 vols., New York 1902), and by Leo Wiener (24 vols., Boston 1904-05). Tolstoy gave up all privileges of rank in order to live a life of labor and asceticism and dur ing the great Russian famine he found abundant opportunity for carrying out his gospel of social service. pee ANNA KARRNINA ; WAR AND PEACE). Consult De Vogiie, (Le Roman Russe' (1888) ; Dupuy, C. E., (Great Masters of Rus sian Literature' (New York 1886) • Garnett, Constance, (Tolstoy: His Life and 'Writings' (London 1914); Howells, W. D., (My Literary
(New York 1895) ; Lloyd, J. A. T. (Two Russian Reformers: Ivan Turgenev and Leo Tolstoy' (ib. 1911) ; Lowenfeld, (Leo Tolstoi' (1892); Maude, A.