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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 26

Analysis
Analysis. When Sulphur Trioxide Is Dissolved In Anhy Drous Sulphuric Acid In The Proportion Of One Molecule Of The Trioxide To One Of The Acid, A Definite Compound Having The Formula H2s202 (or H,so..so,) Is Obtained. When Pure, This Substance Is Known As Upyrosulphuric Acid.° It Is A Dibasic Acid, ...

Austria
Austria. The Austrian Government Has Developed An Exceptionally Logical System Of Trade Instruction For Both Sexes. The Legislation In Regard To Fostering Handicrafts Has Been Similar To That Taking Place In Germany And Has Had A Great Effect On The Development Of Trade Training. The Schools Of All Grades Are ...

Bion Theocritus
Theocritus, Bion, And Mos Chus, Idyls Of. Theocritus Is One Of The Great Names Contributed By Greece To The Literature Of The World. He Is The Most Excellent Of Pastoral Poets, And To Those Later Born He Has Always Been Glass Of Fashion And The Mold Of Forms— To Bion, ...

Chohcooh
Chohcooh Merle Modifications; These Are Known As (1) Dextrotartaric Acid, Or Ordinary Tartaric Acid, (2) Lvvotartaric Acid, (3) Racemic Acid And (4) Mesotartaric Acid. 1. Dextrotartaric Acid And Some Of Its Salts Are Widely Distributed In The Vegetable Kingdom, Its Acid Potassium Salt Being Present In Large Quantities In Grape ...

Count Tolstoy
Tolstoy, Count Lyof Nikolaievitch, Russian Novelist And Social Refornier; B. Yasnaya Polyana, Government Of Tula, 9 Sept. 1828; D. Astapova, 20 Nov. 1910. He Studied Languages And Law At The University Of Icazan. In 1851 He Went To The Caucasus District As An Ensign Of Artillery And He Served In ...

Date
Date • No. 22 Gauge Wires 1900 300 And 400 Pairs Of Wires 1903 600 Pairs Of Wires 1912 900 Pairs Of Wires During 1914, There Was Developed A Type Of Un Derground Cable Carrying 1,200 Pairs (2,400 Wires) No. 24 B. & S. G. In Size (0.0201) Inches In ...

Differential
Differential) It Follows, That -an Infinity Of Geodesics May Be Drawn At Any Point Of A Face, Each Determined By Its Direction At The The Expression For Ds' Takes A Notable Form When The Parameter Lines, V —constant, Are Geodesics And The Parameter Lines, U =constant, Are Their Orthogonal Trajectories. ...

England
England. • The Trade School Proper Was Not De Veloped To As Great An Extent In England As On The Continent. Although Technical Educa Tion Has Received Attention, There Have Been Until Recently But Few Instances Where The Day Schools Aimed To Take The Place Of Actual Apprenticeship. This Was ...

Fra Nce
Fra Nce. France Began To Plan And Legislate For The Training Of Her Haudworkers Centuries Ago. The Forerunner Of The Trade School Began In 1799, But The Great Development Of The Subject Has Been During The Last Quarter Of A Century, Following The French Exposition Of 1878. The Number Of ...

Germ Any
Germ Any. The Awakening Of Germany To The Import Ance Of Training Her Wage-earners Took Place About The Time Of The Centenntial Exhibition In Philadelphia In 1876, Which Showed Germany's Products To Be Distinctly Inferior To Those Of Other Continental Countries. The French Ex Position Of 1878 Still Further Manifested ...

Henri F Klein
Henri F. Klein, Editorial Staff Of The Americana. Sworb, The, A Weapon Used In Personal Combat For Cutting Or Thrusting, One Of The Most Ancient And Highly Esteemed Of All Weapons. No Sooner Had The Art Of Working Metals Been Dis Covered Than It Made Its Appearance, Replacing Almost At ...

Italy
Italy. Education For Industrial Pursuits Began Seriously In Italy After The National Umon. In 1898 Vigorous Reforms Took Place In The Schools Which Raised The Standard Of Teaching And Reorganized The Courses Of Study. The Schools Were Founded Chiefly By Individuals. They Differ Widely In Type, In Object And In ...

Language Swedish Literature
Language; Swedish Literature. In The Case Of Sweden, As Of Many Other Countries, The Industry Of Chroni Clers Has Supplied Details About Ages With Which They Were Unacquainted. These Early Chronicles, Called Sagas, Contain Lists Of Kings At Variance With Each Other, And Stories Of Ad Venture Of The Kind ...

Lar System
Lar System). The Trachea Itself Is Lined By Delicate Mucous Membrane, Which Is Covered By Epithelial Cells Provided With Delicate Vibratile Processes Or Cilia. The Trachea Derives Its Blood From The Inferior Thyroid Arteries. Its Nerves Arise From The Pneumogastric Trunks And Recur Rent Branches, As Well As From The ...

Lmnp I
Lmnp I. Surfaces For Which Da Dp Dv (a) (i) Ellipsoid, Real, If —, — ' Are All Negative. (ii) Hyperboloid Of One Sheet If Two Of The Quantities Are Negative. (iii) Hyperboloid Of Two Sheets If One Of The Quantities Is Nega Tive. (iv) Ellipsoid, Imaginary, If All The ...

Looks 1914 1909 1904
Looks 1914 1909 1904 1899 40 Inches Or Less 26.431 28,426 Over 40 Inches 44,549 35.214 50.449 36,989 Velvet 2,524 1,196 Ribbon 11,554 10,570 Jacquard Looms 6,826 8.985 Cotton.—in The Textile Industry King Cotton Still Maintains Supremacy. And The United States Holds A Proud Position Among Her Fel Low-nations. The ...

Metal Working Tools
Metal-working Tools. The Almost Innumerable Variety Of Metal Working Tools And The Great Variety Of Pur Poses For Which They Are Employed Make Their Classification Into A Series Of General Groups Practically Impossible Within A Limited Space. In A General Work They May Be Conveniently Di Vided Into Various Classes ...

Pictures
Pictures. And All That May Be Arranged Upon It Should Be Preservative Of The Lines Of Sight And Hearing Of The Spectator And Auditor. From Earliest Times Either An Elevation Or Platform, Or A Depression Or Pit, Have Been Usual For Representation Or Entertainment Before Spectators. The Earliest Choral Dances ...

Principal Events Of The
Principal Events Of The Tenth Century. 905. Edward The Elder, King Of The Angles And Saxons, Second Son Of Alfred The Great, Makes Peace With The Danes Settled In East Anglia And Northumbria, And Establishes The " Laws Of Edward And Guthrum." 909. Northmen From Norway And Denniark, From This ...

Principal Events Of The_2
Principal Events Of The Thdrteenth Century. 1202. The Fourth Crusade Led By Bonifaces, Marquis Of Montferrat. 1204.• Conquest Of Normandy. Constantinople Is Besieged And Taken By The French And Venetians. Baldwin, Cotmt Of Flanders, Elected Emperor Of The East. Seat Of The Greek Empire Removed To Niece. 1206. Genghis Khan, ...

Printing Printing Presses Wks
Printing; Printing Presses; Wks ; Etc. Trade Schools. The Differences In Meaning Between Such Words As Vocational, In Dustrial, Manual Training, Technical, Trade, Part Time, Co-operative, Continuation, Apprenticeship And Corporation Are Not Always Understood And The Terms Are Frequently Used As If They Were Interchangeable, Consequently Brief Definitions Are Necessary ...

Prohibition
Prohibition. Temperance Legislation.— Legislation Against The Liquor Evil In America Dates From 1642, When The Colony Of Maryland Passed A Law Making Drunkenness A Misdemeanor, Pun Ishable By A Fine Of 100 Pounds Of Tobacco. As Sentiment Against Intoxication Developed The License System Was Adopted, As A Temperance Measure, Being ...

Sir Temple
Temple, Sir William, English States Man: B. London, 1628; D. Moor Park, Surrey, 27 Jan. I699. He Was Educated At Spent Six Years On The Continent And Returning In 1654, And .not Choosing To Accept Any Office Under Cromwell, Occupied Himself In The Study Of History And Philosophy. On The ...

Slimy
Slimy, Soo'ine, Rusiia, A Town In The Gov Ernment Of Kharkov, On The River Psiol, 83 Miles North Of The Town Of Kharkov. It Has Nine Churches, A Gymnasium, Technical School, Banks And A Large Sugar Refinery, Besides Nu Merous Distilleries. The Soil Is Productive, And Agricultural Products Are Exported ...

Sulphuretted Hydrogen H3s
" Sulphuretted Hydrogen (h3s), A Gaseous Compound Of Hydrogen And Sulphur, Found Abuncluitly In Nature In Gases Issuing From Crevices In Volcanic Regions, And Oc Casionally In Natural Gas. It Is One Of The Com Mon Products Of Decomposition Of Vegetable Substances, Especially Those Of The Leguminous Family. It Occurs ...

Sulphurous Acid
Sulphurous Acid, An Acid Having (probably) The Formula H2s0s, And Prepared By Dissolving Sulphur Dioxide Gas (see Sulphur) In Water To Saturation; The Acid Being Formed By. The Union Of One Moleculi Of The Dioxide With One Molcule Of Water, According To The Equation So2 1120=---h2s0s. Sulphurous Acid Has Never ...

Sulu
Sulu, Soo-loo', Or Jolo, 116-16', Philip Pines. (1) An Archipelago, Consisting Of Over 400 Islands, Forming The Southern Central Por Tion Of The Philippine Archipelago, Lying Be Tween The Parallels 4° 30' And 121° 52' N. Lat. And The Meridians 119° 25' And 121° 52' E. Long.; Area 1,029 Square ...

Sumac
Sumac, Any Shrub Or Tree Of The Genus Rho's. Some Species Are Poisonous To The Touch. (see Pwarrs, Polsonous). One Of The Most Common Innocent Eastern Species Of America, And The Largest, Is Rhus Hirta, The Staghorn Sumac, So Called Because Its Young, Short Branches Are Covered With Down, In ...

Sumatra
Sumatra, Soo-tni'tra, An Island In The Indian Seas Immediately Under The Equator. Its Extreme Limits Are Lat. 5° 45' N., And 5' 55' S.; Long. 90° 40' E., And 106° 5' E. In The Direction Of Its Greatest Length It Extends From Northwest To Southeast. Its Greatest Length Is About ...

Sumerian Languages
Sumerian Languages. The Pris Tine, Agglutinous Language Spoken By The Earli Est, Prehistoric People Of Mesopotamia, A Region Generally Referred To In Surviving Documents As Mat Shumeri U Akkadi, I.e., Land Of The Sumer Ians And Akkadians, Probably The Biblical Shinar Or Shin'aar. It Was A Non-semitic People Thus Dwelling ...

Summer Sessions
Summer Sessions. The Summer School Responds To A Specific Need. Professional People Such As Teachers, Ministers, Doctors And Also Other Workers Like Social Workers, Y. M. C. A. And Y. W. C. A. Secretaries And Even Business Men And Women, Find The Summer Vacation Pe Riod A Suitable Time To ...

Sumner
Sumner, Charles, American Statesman: B. Boston, 6 Jan. 1811i D. Washington, D. C., 11 March 1874. His Family Was English In Origin, Charles Being A Descendant In The Seventh Gen Eration From William, Who Came To America About 1635 And Settled At Dorchester, Mass. The Sumners Lived In The Same ...

Sumptuary Laws
Sumptuary Laws, A Term Often Used In American Political Discussion With Reference To Laws Regulating The Sale Of Liquor. The Orig Inal Meaning, However, Was The Regulation By Law Of Eating And Drinking, Wearing Apparel And Style Of Living Generally. The Early Settlers Of New England Adopted Harsh Laws Of ...

Sun Birds
Sun-birds, A Large Family (nectariniide) Of Small Insect-eating Birds Of The Tropics Of The Old World, Having Elongated, Slender And Curved Bills, Wings Of Moderate Size And The Central Tail-feathers Usually Prolonged Beyond The Others. These Birds Occur In The Eastern Archipelago, India And Africa. They Take The Place Of ...

Sun Dance
Sun-dance, A Ceremony Performed, With Local Variations, By Most Of The Prairie Indians, Including The Mandan, Omaha, Pawnee Loup, Cheyenne, Arikara, Hidatsa, Blackfeet, Nez Perce, Winnebago, Yankton, Santee And Kiowa. It Is Held Apparently At The Full Moon Occur Ring At Or Next After The Summer Solstice, And Lasts From ...

Sun Dew
Sun-dew, Any Herb Of The Genus Drosera, Which Is Classified Near The Pitcher-plants And The Roses. Several Species Are Found In Amer Ica. The Flowers Are Very Pretty, Like That Of The Saxifrage, Five-petaled, And Borne At The Top Of A Leafless Scape, In A Raceme, The Buds In Which ...

Sunday
Sunday, The Christian Weelcly.festival, By Theologians Associated With The Jewish Sabbath (see Sabbath), While Its Observance Is Often Enforced By The Citation Of The Fourth Com Mandment In The Decalogue. While The Chris Tian Church Has Never Identified Sunday With The Jewish Sabbath, It Has Always Quoted The Fourth Commandment ...

Sunday Schools
Sunday Schools, Meetings Or Gather Ings In Which Religious Instruction Is Given To Children And Young People, Usually Orally And On Sundays. Such Schools Are Sometimes Also Known As Bible Classes, As The Bible Is The Textbook In Frequent Use And Often The Bible And The Christian Doctrine Lessons Are ...

Sunderland
Sunderland, Jabez Thomas, Amer Can Unitarian Clergyman: B. Yorkshire, Eng Land, 11 Feb. 1842. He Was Graduated From The University Of Chicago In 1867 And From The Union Baptist Theological Seminary In 1870. He Was Editor.of The Unitarian Monthly 1886-95, And Has Held Unitarian Pastorates In Milwaukee, Chicago, Ann Arbor, ...

Sunfish
Sunfish, A Fresh-water Fish Of The Family Centrarchidce, Closely Related To The Perches (percide) And Including Also The Black Bass, Crappie, And Calico Bass. These Fishes Are Among The Most Characteristic Of The Fresh Waters Of The United States, Where All Of The 12 Genera And 30 Species Are Found, ...

Sunflower
Sunflower, The Common Name Of The New World Plants Belonging To The Large Composite Genus Helianthus, So Called Because Their Golden-rayed Heads Are Likened To The Sun. The Robust Annual Sunflowers (helianthus Annuls-0, Native To The Prairies Of The American West, Where They Grow Over Large Tracts, Some Times So ...

Sunken Bell
Sunken Bell, The. Gerhart Haupt Mann's 'versunkene ('the Sunken Bell') (1896) Is Commonly Supposed To Be The Poet's Elegy On The Failure Of The Hopes Which He Had Set Upon The Attempt To Adapt Naturalis Tic Methods To The Treatment Of An Historical Subject In 'florian Geyer) (first Played 4 ...

A Tale Of Two
Tale Of Two Cities, A, Published In 1859, Was The Second Of Dickens' Historical Novels And Is To-day More Popular Than The Author's Earlier Novel Of The Sane Kind, (banciaby Rudge> (1841). The Reason Lies Partly In The Fact That The French Revolution Is • A More Permanently Interesting Historical ...

A Tale Of A
Tale Of A Tub, A, And The Battle Of The Books. Swift's 'a Tale Of A Tub' Was Written For The Most Part About 1696, But Was Not Published Till 1704, When It Appeared In A Volume With (the Battle Of The Books.' The Author Wittily Dedicated It To Prince ...

Or Anomodontia Thermorpha
Thermorpha, Or Anomodontia, An Order Of Extinct (triassic And Perman) Reptiles. ((the Dominant Group Among, The Ear Liest Reptiles In Each Quarter Of The Globe Where They Have As Yet Been Discovered;' Say Wood Ward, °is Directly Intermediate In Skeletal Char Acters Between The Highest Labyrinthodonts (mastododonsaurus And Its Allies) ...

Or Colum Bian Order
Tammany Society, Or Colum Bian Order, The, Was Founded 12 May 1789 By William Mooney, Ex-revolutionary Soldier (two Weeks After The National G.overn Ment Was Established), As (a Fraternity Of Patriots Solemnly Consecrated To The Independ Ence, The Popular Liberty And The Federal Union Of The Country?' It Had For ...

Or Meerkat Suricate
Suricate, Or Meerkat, A South African Civet (suricata Tridactyla), Which Dif Fers From Typical Viverrines In Several Points, Notably In Having Only Four Toes On Each Foot. It Is Dark Brown And Has Dark Transverse Stripes On The Rear Of Its Back. The Body And Head Reach A Length Of ...

Or Oil Of Vit
Sulphuric Acid, Or Oil Of Vit Riol, A Common And Exceedingly Important Oxy-acid Of Sulphur, Having The Chemical Formula H2so4. It Was First Prepared By Geber, In The 8th Century, By Distilling Alum; And In The 15th Century It Was Manufactured By Burning Sulphur With Saltpetre, Though The Identity Of ...

Or Palm Wine Toddy
Toddy, Or Palm-wine, A Drink Made In Tropical Countries From The Sap Of Various Palms, Especially When In A Fermented State. The Word Is Of Hindustani Origin And Is Gen Erally Applied In India To The Substance Used As Yeast To Leaven Bread. In The Malayan Archi Pelago, Toddy Is ...

Or Plateau Table Land
Table-land, Or Plateau, An Ele Vated Flat Tract Of Country Of Considerable Area. In Ordinary Usage The Term Is Applied To Such Flat Areas Elevated Above 1,000 Feet From Sea Level. The Level Character Of The Plateau May Be Due To The Horizontality Of The Strata Com Posing It, The ...

Or Silver King Tarpon
Tarpon, Or Silver King, A Great And Powerful Fish (tarpon Atlanticus, Or Mega Lops Thrissoides), Known From Virginia To Brazil, And Regarded By Anglers As The Finest Of American Game Fishes. It Is Related To The Herrings And Resembles Them In General Out Line, But Is Sometimes Six Feet Long. ...

Or Sverige Sweden
Sweden, Or Sverige, A Northern European State, Forming With Norway (q.v.) A United Kingdom, Occupying The Whole Of The Peninsula Known In Ancient Times By The Name Of Scandinavia. Sweden Is Situated Be Tween Lat. 55° 20' And 69° N.; And Long. 11° 40' And 24° E.; And Is Bounded ...

Or Tabashir Tabasheer
Tabasheer, Or Tabashir, A Markable Substance Occasionally Found In The Hollow Joints Of Certain Species Of Bamboo And Other Large Grasses. It Is Ordinarily Sought For By Splitting Open Those Bamboo Stems Which Give A Rattling Sound When Shaken. It Is Espe Cially Apt To Be Found In The Bantbusa ...

Or Tannic Acids Tannins
Tannins, Or Tannic Acids, Are Com Pounds Of High Molecular Weight, Widely Dis Tributed In The Vegetable Kingdom. Some Varie Ties Are Found In Diseased Vegetable Tissues Or In Abnormal Growths, While Others Are Present In The Different Parts Of The Healthy Plant. Gallotannic Acid Is Present In Gall-nuts, Caf ...

Or Tartars Tatars
Tatars, Or Tartars, A Nomadic Peo Ple Anciently Spoken Of A.s Scythians, Known For Their Incursions And Conquests Among Neighbor Ing Nations Over A Wide Extent Of Terntory ; Their Local Seat Being Found Both In Ancient And Mod Ern Times In The Steppes Or Uncultivated Regions Which Connect Europe ...

Or Teguexin Teju
Teju, Or Teguexin, A Large Lizard (tupinatnbir Teguexin), Inhabiting Tropical America. The Upper Parts Are Deep-black, Mot Tled With Green And Yellow ; The Sides Show Two Rows Of White Spots; And The Under Parts Are Yellow, Marked With Black Stripes. A Full Grown Specimen May Be Three Feet In ...

Or Teredo
Teredo, Or A Small Marine Bivalve Boring Mollusk (teredo Navalis), Which Excavates Burrows In Wood Under (salt) Water, Attacking The Timbers Of Piers And Ves Sels In Immense Numbers, And Riddling Them To Such An Extent That They Are Rendered Utterly Useless, In A Surprisingly Short Time, If Left Un ...

Or Textile Fabrics Textiles
Textiles, Or Textile Fabrics. Stuffs Made By The Weaving Together Of Threads Of Any Sort, So As To Produce A Material With A Nearly Solid Surface. A Fishing-net Or The Like Is Not A Textile Fabric Because The Cords Which Compose It Are Not Woven Together, But Cross One Another ...

Or Thags Thugs
Thugs, Or Thags, A Vast Fraternity Of Murderers That Formerly Existed In India Until The British Government Undertook To Crush It Out In The Early '30 Of The 19th Century. The Practitioners Of Thuggee Claimed To Be A Re Ligious Sect Devoted To The Goddess Kali, Or Deve Or Bhowanee, ...

Or Ther Mal Chemistry
Thermo-chemistry, Or Ther Mal Chemistry, That Branch Of Physical Chemistry Which Deals With The Thermal Changes Which Occur When Chemical Reactions Take Place Or When A Body Or System (such As A Solution) Undergoes Certain Kinds Of Physical Change. Its Precise Limits Are Not Easy To Define, Since The Subject ...

Or Tokoly Tekeli
Tekeli, Or Tokoly, Emmerich, Count Or, Hungarian Noble: B. About The Middle Of The 17th Century; D. Nico Media, Asia Minor, 1705. His Father Had Headed An Insurrectionary Movement Against Austria And He Himself Was Chosen By The Hun Garians In 1678 Their Commander-in-chief. He Broke Into Upper Hungary, Captured ...

Or Tyndale Tindall
Tindall, Or Tyndale, William, Eng Lish Reformer And Translator Of The Bible: B. Near Welsh Borders, About 1490; D. Vilvoorden, Belgium, 6 Aug. 1536. He Entered The Univer Sity Of Oxford In 1510, And Was Graduated In 1512. He Subsequently Went To Cambridge, Where He Resided Till 1521, And About ...

Or The Me Chanical
Thermodynamics, Or The Me Chanical Theory Of Heat, That Branch Of P'hysical Science Which Treats Of The Relation Of Heat Energy To Energy Of Other Kinds, And Particularly Of The Convertibility Of Heat Energy Into Mechanical Energy, And The Converse. In Order To Discuss, Quantitatively, The Conversion Of One Icind ...