• The trade school proper was not de veloped to as great an extent in England as on the Continent. Although technical educa tion has received attention, there have been until recently but few instances where the day schools aimed to take the place of actual apprenticeship. This was due largely to the Education Act of 1889, which forbade the practice of any trade, industry or employment in the schools. The education acts later took a more favorable attitude toward trade in struction, and government aid can now be given for fostering such schools. They are rapidly increasing.
Supplementary trade work is largely offered in the night continuation classes, which resemble those of Germany, and attract large numbers of students. There are 4,000 of these classes in London alone. Mr. Robert Blair, of the Mosely Educational Commission, says in his report on technical education in the United States: ((We are in the main trying to do in one institution —the evening school — what Germans and Americans are in the main endeavoring to do in two?) The night classes are open to both sexes. Girls do not take muth advantage of them, however, for the reason that nine or 10 hours of work during the day leave but little energy for resuming workshop practice.
Although the polytechnics have done much for the industries, it is only of late years that they have fostered real trade instruction in the day classes. Such instruction, however, has recently been increasing. A late report gives the number of day trade students in or near London as 5,800. These are provided for in 35
well-equipped workrooms (principally in the polytechnics) in which 200 courses are given bearing on 53 different trades. The evening classes are doing a fine work in training older workers for better positions. Day preparatory trade schools are being organized. Engineers of high ra,nk are urging educational facilities for apprentices, workmen and experts equal to those offered on the Continent of Europe.
Trade training for girls has not been greatly encouraged by the working class. The germ of it has been in the excellent domestic economy schools. The Women's Industrial Council of London is doing much to foster trade schools for girls as a part of education. The London County Council has opened an All-Day Trade School of the preapprenticeship type. It began under private control but was taken over by the city in 1907. A girl can enter at 14 and remain two years. A day continuation school has also been opened for girls at work. The Borough Polytechnic in London opened in 1904 Day Trade Waistcoat-Making School for Girls, and other polytechnics have followed the example. General education, art and domestic science are included in the one-year course. The council is urging that similar day courses be offered at each technical institute in London, in order to train workers for all good trades employing women.