Education for industrial pursuits began seriously in Italy after the national umon. In 1898 vigorous reforms took place in the schools which raised the standard of teaching and reorganized the courses of study. The schools were founded chiefly by individuals. They differ widely in type, in object and in pro gram. Many of the schools receive subsidies from the state as well as from the provincial or communal authorities, or from chambers of commerce, or from the savings banks. The government exercises a certain class of super vision over those schools receiving subsidies. Although there is no co-ordination between the schools there is a response to local needs. As in other countries, there are several grades of schools, The schools of arts and trades (scuolc d'arti e mestieri) train the workmen. These institutions are very numerous in the cities and small towns, and are unevenly dis tributed through Italy. Piedmont, Lombardy, Campagna and Tuscany have the greater num ber. The instruction in many of them deals more with the technical features than with the academic and theoretical. As in other conti nental countries there are two classes of schools for apprentices: The day school to train work men for trade, and the night or Sunday course.s to improve worlcmen engaged in the industries. Everywhere there is the emphasis on the artistic side of industry. The Casanova Institute of Arts and Trades in Naples and the Municipal School of Arts and Trades in Genoa are illus trations of the day trade schools for boys.
Trade education for girls (scuole pro fesionale) has received serious attention. The schools are largely attended. The parent insti tution is in Rome. It still remains a model for other schools. The girls enter at 12 years of age, on completing their elementary edu cation and continue to attend the classes for three, four or even six years. The compulsory subjects are drawing and cooking. Optional subjects are languages, needlework in all branches, laundry work, lace and artificial flowermalcing, hair-dressing, bookkeeping and arithmetic. There is also a nurses' training
school. Similar schools are to be found in Florence, Milan, Venice, Turin, Parma, Bologna, Palermo and in some of the smaller towns.
Bibliography.— 'Reports) of the Commis sioner of Labor (Washington, annually) ; (Reports' of the United States Commissioner of Eduction (ib., annually) ; (Reports) and (Bul letins) of the National Society for Voca tional Education (New York) ; (Reports' and (Monthly Summaries) of the Federal Board for Vocational Education; (Reports) of the Royal Commission on Technical Education for Great Britain (London, annually) ; Pro ceedings of the International Congresses for Technical, Commercial and Industrial Edu cation; Annuaire de la jeunesse (Parisi; (Some Trade Schools in Europe,' United States Bureau of Education, Bulletin No. 23 (Washington 1914) ; (Reports) of the Massachusetts Commission on Industrial and Technical Eduction (Boston 1906, 1908) ; (A Glance at Some European and American Voca tional Schools,) issued by the Consumers' League of Connecticut (Hartford 1911) ; Chamberlain, A. H., (The Condition and Tendencies of Technical Education in Germany) (Syracuse 1908) ; Cooley, E. G., (Vocational Education in Europe' (Chicago 1912) ; Damm, P., 'Die technischen Hochschulen Preussens' (Berlin 1909); Dean, (The Worker and the State) ; Kerschensteiner, G., (Education for Citizenship); id., (Organisation und Lehrplane der obligatorischen Fach-und Fort-bildungs schulen fiir Knaben in Munchen) (Munich 1910) ; Roman, F. W., (The Industrial and Commercial Schools of the United States and Germany) (New York 1915) ; Seath, J., (Edu cation for Industrial Purposes) (Toronto 1911) ; Woolman, M. S.,