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Looks 1914 1909 1904 1899 40

industry, mills and shown

LOOKS 1914 1909 1904 1899 40 inches or less 26.431 28,426 Over 40 inches 44,549 35.214 50.449 36,989 Velvet 2,524 1,196 Ribbon 11,554 10,570 Jacquard looms 6,826 8.985 Cotton.—In the textile industry King Cotton still maintains supremacy. And the United States holds a proud position among her fel low-nations. The industry has shown a marvelous growth in the last quarter of a century, but the centres of production have shown frequent reduction of output in indi vidual mills while collectively the advance has been aggressively steady. The first cotton mills were in New England but by 1860 the indus try had spread into scattered sections as is shown by the following table which gives New England 52 per cent of establishments and 75 per cent of spindles: This New England industry was centralized in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and fac tories were grouped largely at Providence, Fall River and Lowell with Manchester, N. H., also prominent and Philadelphia the largest cotton A general survey of the progress of the United States in its cotton industry is best told by the statistics. Thus we have for woven goods in square yards and values the follow ing figures:* manufacturing city. This before the Civil

War. The general technical growth up to 1890 has been briefly given above (more de tails of machinery can be found under title Loom) with its greatly improved machinery inventions thus allowing larger output per man ower, higher wages, and competition with European imports. But the radical changes occurring in the industry are shown by the fact that New England's 570 establishments in 1860 had fallen to 308 in 1905, though the number of spindles had increased from 3,859, 000 to 13,911,000 in those years from the tendency of the smaller factories to lose ground and the rapid growth of the more prominent and highly capitalized mills. Then came the sudden mushroom-like growth of the Southern mills and the Northern cotton-mill owners feared that their industry was threatened by the competing field with its low-priced labor. From 1890 to 1905 we get the following statis tics which show that the advance of the North ern industry maintained a healthy advance: