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Principal Events of the Tenth Century 905

otto, edward, germany, king and henry

PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF THE TENTH CENTURY.

905. Edward the Elder, King of the Angles and Saxons, second son of Alfred the Great, makes peace with the Danes settled in East Anglia and Northumbria, and establishes the " Laws of Edward and Guthrum." 909. Northmen from Norway and Denniark, from this year on, through the century, continue to ravage the Russian, German, British, Irish and French coasts, and although disastrously repulsed from Sin, extend their depre dations to Italy. They establish colonies in Normandy. France. under Rollo. m England and in the northern Scottish islands.

911. Conrad, duke of Franconia is elected emperor of the Pranks.

918. Henry the Fowler becomes HenryI.. IC* of Germany.

919. Germany and north Italy are divided into dukedoms and principalities. The third or Saxon dynasty com mences. Henry I extends his territory; increases civic rights; creates severalrgr vates. The aver mines of Hertaburg are disco . a Industry and wealth crease. Edward the Elder. King of the Angle. and Saxons. is " chosen as father and lord " by Scots, Northumbrian', Danes, Norwegians and Welsh after victorouS campaigns.

924. Edward the Elder dies and is succeeded by Atheletan who consolidates the Saxon Heptarchy.

929. Otto of Germany, eldest son of Henry I, marries Edith, King of E 934. Henry I of Germany stems the Hungarian invasion. 936. Otto I, the Great succeeds his father Henry I as King of Germany.

942. Otto concludes peace with Louis IV of France after war over Lorraine.

953. War attain breaks out over Lorraine and is ended by Otto's brother Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne.

955. The Hungarians are finally dnven out of Germany.

Otto defeating them in a brilliant victory at Lechfeld.

Otto also defeats the Slays who had ravaged Saxony. 959. Hugh Capet is made Duke of France.

968. Hroswitha, dramatist, Benedictine religious, and " the strong voice of Gandersheim." presents her ' Carmen de tests Oddonis ' to the emperors Otto I and Otto II. 971 Edward the Martyr becomes King of England.

978. Edward is assassinated at the instigation of his step mother.

983. Greenland is colonised from Iceland by Northman who send Christian missionaries there. They also reach Vineland on the North American continent.

987. On the dissolution of the Franconian Empire and the termination of the second dynasty, the founder of the third dynasty is elected of France.

988. Saint Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury, . 997. Stephen I is crowned King of Hungaryand enters into friendly relations with Christian of Western Epe.

999. Austria becomes a Margravate. The Grecian Empire loses territory to the Bulgarians on Motpit Humus end resists Russian invasion. The Turks in possession of and Syria extend their empire and give the title to their rulers.

1000. Civilization advances. Villainne or serfdom is abolished in Western Europe. The principal towns become republics. Hereditary estates on a military basis are established. The dukes and counts become kings. Arabic learning attains a high standard. The Institutions for education founded by Charlemange are almost obliterated in the upheavals of the Franconian Empire, but faith and learning are safeguarded by the Church, for the intellectual advance and uplift of humanity.