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Principal Events of the Thdrteenth Century 1202

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1202. The Fourth Crusade led by Bonifaces, Marquis of Montferrat.

1204.• Conquest of Normandy. Constantinople is besieged and taken by the French and Venetians. Baldwin, Cotmt of Flanders, elected emperor of the East. Seat of the Greek empire removed to Niece.

1206. Genghis Khan, the Monifol emperor, begins his career of conquest, extending his expeditions from China to Bulgaria.

1208. Pope Innocent III lays an interdict on England. The Albigensian. Crusade.

1209. The Inquisition instituted at Avignon to check heresy.

1212. Defeat of the Saracens at Tolosa, Spain. Contests between Moors and Christians arouse the spirit of chivalry. Goths divide into three kingdoms, Castile, Aragon and Portugal. The ill-starred Children's Crusade.

1214. The libertiea of Oxford University Confirmed by papal authority.

1215. General revolt against the king of England. John I of England forced to sign Magna Charts. Rise of trade guilds and labor unions.

1220. Venice becomes independent. Golden period of com merce. Cities of Venice, Genoa and Pisa furnish ships for the Crusades. Architecture, fine arts and the indus tries flourish throughout western Europe.

1226. Louis IX, afterward known as Saint Louis, ascends the throne of France. Saint Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan Order. dies.

1227. Death of Genghis Khan.

1228. The Fifth Crusade led by King Andrew II.

1230. Teutonic knights establish themselves in Prussia 1231. Saint Elizabeth of Hungary dies.

1236. Tatars invade Russia.

1245. Alexander of Hales. the " Irrefragable Doctor " of English theology, dies.

1248. Saint Louis IX of France leads the Sixth Crusade. 1252. Death of Ferdinand the Saint, king of Castile and Leon. 1253. The Jews are expelled from France.

1257. The Provisions of Oxford formulated.

1260. Michael Palseologua founds a family of distinguished Eastern emperors.

1261. Recovers Constantinople from Western dominati 1262. The Barons' War in England.

1263. Sir John do Baliol founds Baliol College, Oxford. 1264. Vincent of Beauvais, the encyclopedist of the Middle Ages, dies.

1265. Henry III of England reigns. Deputies of the Commons first summoned to Parliament. 'The lcingdom of the Two Sicilies comes under French domination.

1268. The Mongol-Tatars invade China.

1270. The Seventh and last Crusade. Death of Saint Louis of France.

1271. Marco Polo's travels extend the knowledge of the world.

1272. Edward I crowned king of England.

1274. Saint Thomas of Aquinas, " Prince of Scholastics," dies.

1280. Albertus Magnna, the " Doctor Universalis " of Ger man philosophy, dies.

1280. The Mongol-Tatars conquer China, overthrow the Southern Sung dynasty and establish the dynasty of Yuen. Under Kublai IChan, grandson of Genghis. the grand canal of China is dug.

1282. The Sicilian Vespers. Massacre of. the French in Sicily. Conquest of Wales by the English.

1284. Death of Alfonso X. the RIse, of Spam.

1285. Philip IV reigns in France.

1290. The Jews are expelled from England.

1294. Roger Bacon, the " Doctor Admirabilis " of English science, dies.

1295. The English Parliament is organized.

1297. Edward I takes the coronation chair and the records of Scotland to London.

1299. Scotch defeat at Falkirk. The Ottoman or 'Turkish &vire founded. JAmEs J. WALSH, Author of (The Thirteenth Greatest of Cen turies.)