PRINTING; PRINTING PRESSES; WKS ; ETC. TRADE SCHOOLS. The differences in meaning between such words as vocational, in dustrial, manual training, technical, trade, part time, co-operative, continuation, apprenticeship and corporation are not always understood and the terms are frequently used as if they were interchangeable, consequently brief definitions are necessary before the subject of °trade schools" can be satisfactorily treated.
Vocational education is an inclusive term for all forms of occupational training such as industrial, agricultural, commercial and house hold arts. A vocational school has for its controlling purpose the fitting of students for useful occupations. The pupil must have reached the age when work papers can be secured and the courses are below college grade. The aim of such a school is to supple ment general education and not to take the place of it.
Industrial education is used in a broad as well as in a restricted sense. The term covers all education connected with the industries such as the industrial and household arts of the elementary and secondary schools, technical and trade instruction for industrial workers and training in engineering schools. The term Industrial school is used at times in America to indicate instruction of a primary order which gives pupils one or more branches of industry in order that habits of work and thrift shall be inculcated. This form of school is often used for reclaiming young offenders from evil habits, or for dependent and neg lected children.
A manual training school offers activities of a more or less trade-like character with the idea of developing or educating the individual, that hand and mind may be trained together and each help the other. The aim is not to give a wage-earning vocation. The general education in these schools has usually little relation to the trades and is carried further than is necessary or possible for the ordinary apprentice. In some of the schools vocational elements are being introduced.
A technical school may be elementary in character or it may train engineers. The aim in both cases is to give theoretical and scientific knowledge connected with a chosen occupation. It prepares the overseer or superintendent rather than the apprentice or worker. In its simplest form such use of tools or apparatus is taught as will show the connection of theory with practice. Handwork is given to explain the science rather than to fit a student directly for a trade. The highest development of this type of school is found in the great technical institutions where both the application of art to industry and the most thorough scientific training are provided. The Massachusetts In stitute of Technology and the great German and American textile schools are examples. The night technical classes so numerous in Europe and America are adding trade features in order to be especially useful to workers who are be yond 16 years of age, the aim being to pro vide instruction directly related to the employ ments. Many of the courses offered in the Young Men's Christian Associations are ex amples. In England the polytechnic schools offer training of this kind and public instruc tion in America is rapidly meeting this same need. Industrial and household arts, science,
drawing and forms of industrial arithmetic and English are offered to enable ambitious older workers to get ahead in their trades.
A trade school may be advanced or prepara tory in character. The first offers several Years of training for full apprenticeship or for journeyman. The Williamson Free School of Mechanical Trades in Philadelphia is such a school. A preparatory trade school offers short courses of from three months to a year to workers (from 14 to 16 years of age) who are entering trade. The Manhattan Trade School for Girls in New York City is a school of this order. Trade schools are founded to teach a single trade such as watchmaker or tailoring or they may offer a number of occupations. The simplest form is a workshop where the manipu lation of some trade is taught which requires the expert use of tools. This kind does little for the development of the worker. An all day trade school, such as The Manhattan Trade School for Girls, aims to give a preparation which shall abolish the drudgery and waste of the regular workroom and supply an economic and vital instruction. Actual shop methods are followed in all of the trades, practice occupies most of the eight-hour day, and industrial art as related to each trade, hygiene and social, civic and industrial teaching start the student well equipped for wage-earning. Part-time, co operative and continuation schools are used for trade instruction. The aim is to co-operate di rectly with the industry and train workers while they are wage-earning. The training may be given during the working day in the factory itself, the workers being paid and also given an education. Or the classes may be in a near-by school building, the students being allowed to leave their work for several hours per Week. Salesmanship classes illustrate this form of training. Public instruction may be responsible for the teaching in both cases. Courses are given on subjects which artedifficult to learn in the rush of the workroom. The experience which the worker is gaining in the trade itself is thus supplemented by Instruc tion during the day for the younger workers and at night for the older ones. Technical courses, general education, science, drawing and design, business arithmetic and English are frequently given. These schools are being organized in many States as laws are enacted making it compulsory for employers to allow workers between 14 and 16 years of age to at tend such schools during the day, for five or more hours per week, without loss of wage. Germany has done much to develop the con tinuation school during the day and at night. Apprenticeship and corporation schools have been organized by some of the railroads and great business enterprises for training their own employees. The work Is of the part-time character and the workers are paid their full salaries. The aim is to increase the ability of the worker for his own sake as well as for the corporation.