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Suvoroff-Rimnikski

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SUVOROFF-RIMNIKSKI, soo-vo'ro f rim-nyik'ski, Alexander Vasoilievitch (Pamica ITALIESKI), a celebrated Russian general: b. in Moscow according to one account, in Finland according to another, 24 Nov. 1729; 4. Saint Petersburg, 18 May 1800. He entered the army as a private, fought bravely in the war against Sweden and by his distinguished conduct dur ing the Seven Years' War gained the rank of colonel (1762). He participated in the sup pression of the Polish uprising of 1768-72, capturing Cracow in the first year of the con flict and attaining the rank of major-general. When war with Turkey broke out in 1773, Suvoroff as general of division achieved notable victories at Turtukai and Hirsuva, and in con junction svith a force under Kainenskvi com pleted the overthrow of the Turkish armies at Kosludji beyond the Danube. Subsequently he fought against the pretender Pugatcheff, whose overthrow was largely due to his exertions, and made successful campaigns in Crimea, against the Kuban Tatars and against the mountain tribes of the Caucasus. -Upon the renewal of war with Turkey in 1787 he was entrusted with the chief command, and after inflicting decisive defeats upon the enemy at Kinburn, Otchakov and Tokshani, performed the most splendid feat of arms of the entire war by effecting the rescue of the Austrian army under the Prince of Saxe-Coburg, which was surrounded on the banks of the Rymnik by a vastly superior Turkish force, which Suvoroff utterly overthrew, gaining thereby the title of Rimnikski and the rank of count. In 1790 he stormed Ismail, where his troops were guilty of. the most bloody excesses. Sent in 1794 against the Polish msurgents he gained the title of field-marshal by his storming of the Praga, suburb of Warsaw, and the occu pation of the Polish capital. After five years

of retirement, he was summoned to take com mand of the Russian forces which were to co-operate with the Austrians against the revo lutionary armies of France in Italy. At 70 Suvoroff was to achieve the most notable tri umphs of his career. Arriving in Italy in April 1799 he succeeded within four months in driving the French from the- northern part of the country, after he had defeated their armies at Cassano, 27 April, on the Trebbia, 17-19 June and at Novi, 15 August. Thereupon he crossed into Switzerland to effect a junction with a sec ond Russian army under Korsakoff. The cross ing of the Saint Gotthard pass was accom plished only after fearful hardships, with the loss of one-third of his army and all his g,uns. In Switzerland he found that Korsakoff had been defeated by Massena and that the French were masters of the country. He thereupon began a retreat through the Grisons and Vorarlberg, in which he displayed some of the highest quali ties of his generalship. Setting out on the way to Russia, after he had been named commander in-chief of all the Russian forces with the title of Prince Italieski, he lost the favor of the Emperor Paul before his arrival in Saint Peters burg, where after a short ailment he died. Consult Snzith, F., 'Suworow's Leben und Heerziige) (Vilna 1833-34) ; also his 'Auto biography,' edited by Glinlca (1819) ; and biog raphies by Polevoi (1853) ; Spalding (1890). Consult also Macready, E. N., 'A Sketch of Suwarrow and his Last Campaign' (London 1851), and Reding-Biberegg, 'Der Zug Su worows durch die Schweiz' (Ziirich 1869).