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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 26

Sunstroke
Sunstroke, Prostration Due To Ex Posure To Intense External Heat. Such Exposure May Be To The Direct Or Indirect Rays Of A Trop Ical Sun Or To The Excessive Heat Of An Engine Room. In Either Case Heat And Physical Exer Tion Combine To Bring About The Results. A High ...

Supererogation
Supererogation, Performance Of More Than Duty Requires, For Example, If One Commits Theft Of A Dollar And Makes Reparation Of The Wrong By Giving Back Two Dollars; Or If One Not Only Forgives Those Who Injure Him, But Confers Unmerited Benefits Upon Them. The Anglican Church, In The 14th Of ...

Superfcetation
Superfcetation, A Second Concep Tion And The Formation Of A Foetus After A Previ Ous Impregnation In The Same Female, Whereby Two Foetuses Coexist In The Uterus. In Such A Case A Woman May Be Delivered Of A Full-grown Child And Of An Undeveloped Embryo At The Same Time, The ...

Superior
Superior, Wis., City, Port Of Entry, County Seat Of Douglas County, On Lake Superior, And On The Northern Pacific, The Chicago Saint Paul, Minneapolis And Omaha, The Buluth, South Shore And Atlantic, The Great Northern, The Minneapolis, Saint Paul, And Sault Sainte Marie, The Chicago, Milwaukee And Saint Paul And ...

Superior_2
Superior, Lake, The Largest Expanse Of Fresh Water In The World And The Most Westerly And Most Elevated Of The Great Lakes Of The Saint Lawrence Basin; Lat. 46° 30' To 49° N.; Long. 84° 30' To 92° 20' W. It Washes The Shores Of The State Of Minnesota On ...

Superstition
Superstition, Popular. That Which Others Believe And We Do Not, Is Classed As Superstition. The Religion Of Our Friend, If Differing Radically From Our Own, Seems To Us A Superstition. In The Heart Of Nearly Every Human Being, Savage Or Civilized, Exists A Set Tled Conviction That He Dwells In ...

Superstitions Of The World
Superstitions Of The World. Africa.— The Snake Is Held In Superstitious Reverence By Some African Natives, Who Once A Year Kill A Cobra De Capello And Hang Its Slcin To The Branch Of A Tree, Tail Downward. Then All The Children Born During The Last Year Are Brought Out And ...

Supplemental Education
Supplemental Education. Defi Education Is For Every Com Munity And For Everybody. It Extends The Opportunity For Education To The Whole Body Of The People, To The Whole Period Of Life And To All The Vital Interests Of Life.* Formal Education May Be Said To Include The Systematic Instruction Which ...

Supplementary Proceedings
Supplementary Proceedings Are In The Nature Of A Civil And Equitable Action Whereby Property Of A Judgment Debtor May Be Reached, Where Said Property Cannot Be Taken Under The Usual Process Of Execution; Its Object Primarily Is To Discover The Property Of A Judg Ment Debtor Which Is Subject To ...

Supply Railways
Supply Railways. Under This Des Ignation Are Included All Railways, Except Com Bat Railways, That May Be Constructed Or Used For The Supply Of An Army In The Field. They May Vary From A Light Portable Track To A Standard-gauge Road. Their Principal Uses Are To Connect The Army With ...

Suprarenal Capsules
Suprarenal Capsules, Two Small, Ductless Glandular Bodies Situated At The Front Portion Of The Upper End Of Each Kidney. They Are Generally Classified With The Spleen And Similar Structures As Ductless Glands. Each Suprarenal Capsule Exhibits A Yellowish Color. That Of The Right Kidney Is Somewhat Of Trian Gular Shape, ...

Supreme Court Of The
Supreme Court Of The United States, The, Is A Cardinal Feature Of Our Federal Representative Government, Balancing And Harmonizing All Its Parts, A Tribunal Which Has Received The General Approval And Admira Tion Of Foreign Jurists And Statesmen, And Com Mands The Universal Respect And Confidence Of The People For ...

Suretyship
Suretyship, A Word Derived From The French Surety, From The Latin Sectaitas, Which Means Freedom From Care. It Signifies The Obli Gation Of A Person To Answer For The Debt, De Fault Or Non-performance Of Another, And To Make Good Any Loss Occasioned Thereby To The Extent Provided In The ...

Surface Tension
Surface Tension, That Property Of Liquids In Virtue Of Which They Tend To Take Such A Form As To Have The Smallest Surface Possible. The Name °surface Tension° Has Ref Erence To The. Fact That Liquids, When Freed From The Action Of Gravity And Other Compara Tively Powerful Forces, Behave ...

Surfaces
Surfaces, Theory Of. Surface, In The Mathematical Sense, Is The Common Boundary Of Two Contiguous Regions Of Space. The De Velopments In This Vast Field Of Mathematical Investigation Are Essentially Of Modern Origin. The Geometers Of The Greek School Were Ac Quainted With Some Of The Elementary Proper Ties Of ...

Surgeon In The Army
Surgeon In The Army And Navy Of The United States. The History Of The Connection Of A Regular Staff Of Surgeons To The Army Dates Back To The Siege Of Boston In 1775. At That Time The Second Pro Vincial Congress Of Massachusetts Bay Was In Session And On 8 ...

Surgery
Surgery, History Of General. The His Tory Of Medicine, Fascinating At All Times, Is Most Valuable To The Surgeon When Applied To The Subject Of General Surgery. At The Present Time There Is Much In The Literature Of Medicine That Is Very Instructive And It Becomes More And More So ...

Surgery In America
Surgery In America. If At Any Time One Should Purpose Writing A History Of The Progress Of Surgery On The American Con Tinent He Must Not Fail To Remember That In The Earlier Part Of Its History America Was Abso Lutely Dependent On Europe, And Could Not He Expected To ...

Surnames
Surnames. A Surname Is A Name Added To A Baptismal Or Christian Name Which Makes It More Specific, And Is Generally A Family Designa Tion. It May Be Indicative Of Descent, Habitat, Craft, Or May Have Originated In Totemistic Asso Ciations, Clanship, Personal Peculiarities Or From Vulgar Nicknames. A Proper ...

Surveying
Surveying, The Science Of Determining Accurately The Relative Locations Of Points And Lines On The Earth's Surface And Of Recording The Same On Maps; It Includes Also The Reverse Operation Of Discovering And Locating On The Ground Points And Lines Depicted On A Surveyoes Map. Two Principal Kinds Of Surveying ...

Surveying Instruments
Surveying Instruments. The In Struments Used In The Business Of Surveying Fall Into Two General Classes: Those Used In The Held Work And Those Used In Recording The Field Work On Maps. In Both Classes There Are Three Objects To Be Attained, And Suitable Instruments Are Provided For Each — ...

Surveys
Surveys, United States Governmental From An Early Period In Its History The Govern Ment Has Made Provision For Exploring Expe Ditions Of Various Kinds, Mainly In The Vast Region West Of The Mississippi Which For Many Years Was A But Little Lcnown Wilderness. Some Of These Explorations Were For Military ...

Suvoroff Rimnikski
Suvoroff-rimnikski, Soo-vo'ro F Rim-nyik'ski, Alexander Vasoilievitch (pamica Italieski), A Celebrated Russian General: B. In Moscow According To One Account, In Finland According To Another, 24 Nov. 1729; 4. Saint Petersburg, 18 May 1800. He Entered The Army As A Private, Fought Bravely In The War Against Sweden And By His ...

Sverdrup
Sverdrup, Svzr'drim, Otto, Norwegian Arctic Explorer: B. Harstad Farm, Helgeland, 1855. He Went To Sea At 17, Went With Nansen To Greenland In 1888, And Again In 1e93, As Commander Of The Frans, Which He Brought Back To Norway In 1896. He Led An Expedi Tion To The Northern Regions ...

Svveeny
Svveeny, Thomas William, Irish-ameri Can Military Officer: B. Cork, Ireland, 25 Dec. 1820; D. Astoria, L. L, 10 April 1892. He Came To The United States In 1832 And Settled In New York Where After Finishing His Education, He Was Apprenticed To The Printing Business. He Early Identified Himself With ...

Swallows
Swallows, A Family (hirundinids) Of Passerine Birds Which Are The Counterpart In This Order Of The Swifts (q.v.). This Family Is Distinguished By The Small, Flat, Triangular Bill Which Has Its Sides Gradually Compressed Toward The Tip And The Deeply Cleft Mouth, The Margins Of Which Bear Vety Small Bristles ...

Swamp Land Grants
Swamp Land Grants. The Need Of Reclaiming The Swamp And Overflowed Lands Within The Territory Of The United States Was Brought To The Attention Of Congress In The Early Part Of The 19th Century. It Was Not, However, Until The Act Of 2 March 1849 That Congress Made Provision For ...

Swan
Swan, A Sub-family (cygnine Or Olorida.) Of The Duck Family, Characterized By Great Size And Length Of Neck. The Swans Have The Legs (tarsi) Short And Reticulated, The Front Toes Being Strongly Webbed, While The Hind Toe Is Not Webbed, And Has No Lobe; And The Loral Region (between The ...

Swansea
Swansea, Swon'se, Or Abertawe, Wales, An Important Seaport, Capital Of The County Of Glamorgan, On The Right Hank Of The River Tawe, At Its Mouth In Swansea Bay, 35 Miles West-northwest Of Cardiff. The Town Con Tains A Fine Town-hall With A Corinthian Facade; The Royal Institution Of South Wales, ...

Swarthmore
Swarthmore (swarth'mor) Col Lege, Located At Swarthmore, Pa. It Was Fowided By The Liberal (or Hicksite) Body Of The Society Of Friends, And Was First Opened In 1869. The Main Building Was Destroyed By Fire In 1881, But Was Immediately Rebuilt The Col Lege Now Confers Regularly But One Baccalaure ...

Sweating Sickness
Sweating Sickness, A Febrile Epi Demic Disease Of Extraordinary Malignity Which Prevailed In Europe, Particularly In England, At Different Periods Toward The End Of The 15th Century And The Beginning Of The 16th. It Ap Pears To Have Spared No Age Nor Condition, But Is Said To Have Attacked More ...

Swedberg
Swedberg, Svad'berg, Afterward Swe Denborg, Swe'dn-borg, Swed. Sveden-borg, Emanuel, Swedish Theologian: B. Stockholm, 29 Jan. 1688; D. London, 29 March 1772. His Father, Jesper Swedberg, Was A Chaplain And Court-preacher To The King, Charles Xi. Swed Berg's Paternal Ancestors Had Been Opulent Miners In The Province Of Dalecarlia, And It ...

Swedish
Swedish Language.— The North Germanic Dialects Seem To Have Differed Very Little From Each Other Originally. A Fairly Uni Form Language Was Spoken All Over The North Which In English And Scandinavian Sources Is Often Referred To As Adonsk During The Viking Age, Between 700 And 1100, Four Dia Lects ...

Swedish Literature
Swedish Literature. The Intel Lectual Life Of The North Has Been At All Times More Or Less Dependent On Central Europe, Es Pecially On German And French Civilization. Swedish Literature Shows These Influences In A Marked Degree And Has Only Within The Last Generation Produced Writers Of Distinct Origi Nality ...

Sweet
Sweet, John Edson, American Engineer: B. Pompey, N. Y., 21 Oct. 1832; D. 8 May 1916. He Was Educated In The District Schools, Be Came A Carpenter's Apprentice And Rose To Be A Builder And Architect In 1850. He Was Em Ployed In His Profession In The South Until 1861; ...

Sweet Pea
Sweet Pea, An Annual Herb (lathyrus Odoratus) Of The Family Fabacetr. It Is Sup Posedly A Native Of Ceylon, Sicily And Sardinia, The Original Pink-and-white And The Red Varieties Being Credited To The First Country And The Pure White And Purple Varieties To The Other Two Islands. The Known History ...

Sweet Potato
Sweet Potato, A Tuberous-rooted Perennial Herbaceous Vine A Batatas) Of The Family Convolvulacctr. The Plant Is Of Un Known Origin But Is Supposed To Be A Native Of Tropical America. It Has Roundish Or Angular Heart-shaped Leaves, And In Cultivation Rarely Produces Blossoms Or Seeds. The Flowers Re Semble Those ...

Swete
Swete, Swet, Henry Barclay, English Theologian: B. Bristol, 14 March 1835; D. May 1917. He Was Educated At King's College, Lon Don, And Gonville And Caius College, Cam Bridge, Where He Gained Several Prizes, And Was Graduated In 1858. He Was Professor Of Pastoral Theology In King's College, London, From ...

Swift
Swift, Jonathan, English Clergyman, Poet, Political Writer And Satirist: B. Dublin, Ireland, 30 Nov. 1667; D. Dublin, 19 Oct. 1745. Swift Was The Posthumous Son Of Jonathan Swift, The Neer-do-weel Of A Prosperous And Pretty Well-known Family Which Had Numbered Several Preachers In Its Course Since The Time Of Robert ...

Swifts
Swifts, Birds Of The. Family Micropodide (or Cypselida,), Noted For The Extreme Rapidity Of Their Flight. Their Proper Place In The System Of Ornithology Has Been Much Discussed. For Merly They Were Universally Classed With The Swallows, But The Usual Opinion Among Ornithol Ogists Is That, Unlike As Are The ...

Swimming
Swimming, The Art Or Practice Of Loco Motion Or Mode Of Progression In The Water By Using The Arms And Legs As Paddles. Ac Cording To The Best Authorities, All Animals, Ex Cepting Man, Monkeys And, Perhaps, The Three Toed Sloth (bradypus Tridactylus), Either Swim Naturally Or Go Through The ...

Swinburne
Swinburne, Algernon Charles, Eng Lish Poet: B. London, 5 April 1837; D. 10 April 1909. He Was The Son Of Admiral Charles Henry Swinburne, Of An Old Northumbrian Family, And Jane Henrietta, A Daughter Of The 3d Earl Of Ashburnham, A Woman Of High Culture Who Exercised A Marked Influence ...

Swine
Swine. General Swine Are Of Immense Importance In The Commerce Of The World. In The United States Alone There Are Some 65,000,000 Of Swine On The Farms And In The Hamlets. This Figures Some Two-thirds Of A Hog For Every Human Being In This Nation. Swine Products Are Many And ...

Swiss Guards
Swiss Guards. Swiss Companies Served In France From The Time Of Louis Xi, Who Paid Particular Attention To Cultivate The Friendship Of The Cantons. In 1571 Charles Ix Created The Charge Of Colonel-general Of The Swiss For Montmorency, Who. Commanded All The Swiss In The Kingdom, Except The 100 Guards ...

Switzerland
Switzerland. The Swiss Are An Industrious And Practical People And Their Schools Chow The National Characteristics. This Country Has The Distinc Tion Of Having Provided The Model For The First French Trade School. As Early As 1599 Saint Francis De Sales Conducted A School Which Maintained An Industrial Section. The ...

Switzerland
Switzerland, Fr. La Suisse • It. La Svizzera; Ger. Die Schweiz; Lat. Helvetia: An Ancient Federal Republic Of Central Europe, Extending Between 45° 49' 2" And 47° 48' 32" N. Latitude And 5° 57' 26" And 10° 29' 40" E. Longitude. The Superficial Area Is Approxi Mately 15,983 Square Miles; ...