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land, ellesmere and north

SVERDRUP, svZr'drim, Otto, Norwegian Arctic explorer: b. Harstad Farm, Helgeland, 1855. He went to sea at 17, went with Nansen to Greenland in 1888, and again in 1E93, as commander of the Frans, which he brought back to Norway in 1896. He led an expedi tion to the northern regions in 1898, with the intention of exploring the north of Greenland. The expedition received its financial support mostly from two brothers of the name of Ring nes, and the Norwegian goverrunent renovated and equipped the From for his use. On reach ing Smith Sound, between Ellesmere Land and Greenland, he found it impossible to force his vessel further north through the ice, and sent two expeditions to the southwest across Elks mere Land, which penetrated a region never before explored, and found in the southern part of Ellesmere Land a large glacier district. Later in 1899 he brought the From down to Jones Sound, to the south of Ellesmere Land, and from there conducted a number of sledg ing expeditions, exploring the southern and western portions of Ellesmere Land. On the

southeast coast of Ellesmere Land, north of Jones Sound, a large bay was discovered about 100 miles in breadth and penetrating into Elles mere. On the northern side of this hay large and complicated fiords are situated. On the west coast of Ellesmere Land, in about W., a large system of fiords was discovered. To the west of Ellesmere Land, about 130 miles north of the Parry Islands, Sverdrup dis covered two islands, to the north and west of which nothing was visible but rough polar ice. He returned to Norway in 1902. The discov ery of the islands and the mapping of the west ern and southwestern coasts of Ellesmere Land are the most important •results of Sver drup's expedition. He brought back also a valuable series of meteorological reports, and a representative natural history collection. In 1914-15 he led a relief expedition to the Arctic and wintered on the shores of Kara Sea. He published 'New Land: Four Years in the Arctic Regions' (1904).