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town, iron and copper

SWANSEA, swOn'se, or ABERTAWE, Wales, an important seaport, capital of the county of Glamorgan, on the right hank of the river Tawe, at its mouth in Swansea Bay, 35 miles west-northwest of Cardiff. The town con tains a fine town-hall with a Corinthian facade; the Royal Institution of South Wales, including a library, museum, etc.; a large building in which are housed the public library, art gallery and schools of science and art; a grammar, tech nical and other schools; the general hospital, a deaf and dumb institution, a blind asylum, etc.; remains of an ancient castle dating in its present form from the 16th century, though first built in 1099; and several public parks. The harbor is an excellent one with ample modern docks. The staple industries are the smelting and refining of copper, gold, silver and pyrites, which are imported for the purpose from many countries, the manufacture of tin plate and the working of iron, steel, zinc, nickel, lead and other metals. Chemicals, patent fuels and alkali are also made in consid erable quantity, and there are flour-mills, ship building yards, etc. Swansea is also a leading seaport, its imports average annual value $22, 000,000, being chiefly the raw material for its metallurgical industries, wheat and other grains, sugar and timber; and its exports average an nual value $30,000,000, mainly coal, coke and patent fuel, iron and iron and steel manufac tures, wrought and unwrought copper and chemical products (dyestuffs, sulphate of cop per and carbide of calcium). The vessels an

nually at the port have an average total ton nage entered and cleared of about 5,000,000 tons. Swansea has municipal tramways worked by electricity, and the town is served by the Great Western, London and North-Western, Midland and some local Welsh railways. The first charter of the borough was granted by King John, and subsequent charters were con ferred by Henry III, Edward II, Edward III and Cromwell. The copper industry of the town began to attain importance early in the 19th century, and since about 1830 the town has rapidly advanced in consequence of the development of this and other industries. Pop. 114,663.