SWEET, John Edson, American engineer: b. Pompey, N. Y., 21 Oct. 1832; d. 8 May 1916. He was educated in the district schools, be came a carpenter's apprentice and rose to be a builder and architect in 1850. He was em ployed in his profession in the South until 1861; engaged as an inventor and mechanical draftsman until 1873; from 1873-79 was pro fessor of practical mechanics at Cornell. From 1880 he was president of the Straight Line Engine Company. He founded the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, of which he was president in 1883-84, and an honorary member. On his 80th birthday in 1912, he was given a banquet by the society. He was gov ernment expert and juror on machine tools at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893 and in 1899-1901 was first president of the Engine Builder's Association of the United States. In 1904 he was given the John Fritz Medal, which is awarded bv a board of 16 of the leading members of the Mining, Civil, Mechanical and Electric Engineering Societies. In 1914 Syra cuse University conferred upon him the de gree of Doctor of Engineering.
the classic laurel (Lauriss nobilis), or bay-tree of the Mediterranean regions, which becomes a tree of some 50 feet in its native habitat, but is cultivated as a shrub farther north, being often trimmed like box. (See BAy). It has handsome, lanceo late evergreen leaves, dark-green and shining, which have an aromatic odor and taste and are, therefore, employed in cookery and for pack ing figs. They have also some therapeutic value and yield a thick oil which is incorporated into ointments and liniments. The sweet-bay of America is the small tree (Magnolia vir giniana) called more frequently swamp-mag nolia or swamp-laurel. See MAGNou.k.
a low shrub (Comptonia peregrina), with many brown branches and long linear leaves so deeply pinnatifid on either side of the midrib as to appear fern
like. The flowers arc dicecious, without per ianths, and appear when the leaves expand; the fertile are in globose aments followed by burr like fruits— bony nuts invested with awl shaped persistent bracts. The staminate aments are longer and clustered at the ends of branches. The young foliage is pubescent, and the whole plant has a strong aromatic fragrance when bruised or under hot sunshine. It was formerly included in the genus with the spicy-bay-berry and is often found growing with it on sterile soils or on hillsides further inland. The dried leaves are sometimes used as a substitute for tobacco.
a name given to certain plants, most of which are fragrant, especially in drying. The small Anthoxanthum odoratuns is the sweet vernal grass and has narrow space like particles of spreading one-flowered spilce lets. The leaves are flat. This plant has been introduced from Europe and is found in fields and meadows over nearly the whole of America, adding to the fragrance of newly mown hay. Savastana odorata is the vanilla-grass or holy grass of Europe, which is strewn before the churches and religious processions. It is the material from which the Indians of the Saint Lawrence region weave their thin-walled bas kets. that, when made of the genuine grass, retain their odor of new mown hay indefinitely. Panicularia is a genus of grasses called sweet grass because cattle are said to be foitcl of P. fluitans. Another (Asperula odo rata) does not in the least resemble grass, hav ing whorls of leaves and white flowers like tiny stars in cymes. When dried it is fragrant. however.