TACOMA, ti-kó-ma, Wash., third city in Washington, seaport, county-seat of Pierce County, on Commencement Bay, 38 miles south of Seattle and 25 miles north of Olympia. Its phenomenal growth has given the city the name "The City of It is also called the "City'of Beautiful and the "City with a Snow-Capped Mountain in its Door yard." It is situated at the head of navigation on Puget Sound and is the western terminus of the Northern Pacific and the Chicago, Mil waukee and Saint Paul railroads, both of which maintain large ocean docks and car re pair shops. Tacoma is also the American terminus for the Osaka Shosen Kaisha, a Jap anese steamship line with headquarters at Osaka, Japan. Tacoma's harbor is one of the greatest deep sea harbors in the world and be cause of its similarity to the Italian city, Tacoma is often referred to as the "Naples of America.' The Puyallup River empties into Commencement Bay within the city limits and is one of five waterways that help make tip this modern port. The city is built on rising ground which reaches an altitude of 418 feet above the river. The best residence portion of the city is on a plateau, elevated about 200 feet above the blue waters of the beautiful harbor, and from any portion of this section may be seen stretches of gleaming water losing them selves among the wooded islands; beaches, white, gray and brown, and frowning head lands. The Olympic Mountains stretch along to the west, rugged, snow-flecked and myste rious, while to the east rises Mount Rainier, here known as "Mount "The Moun tain that was God," as one author calls it, an eternally snow-capped peak, 14,520 feet high. It is but "four hours from Tacoma to the Glaciers," from tidewater to mountain eleva tion. The streets of Tacoma are level and paved, and so generously and wisely is the city laid out that it has not a street less than 60 feet wide, while it has several noble avenues 100 feet wide and a few 120 feet. Nearly every home — that of banker, merchant, manufacturer, wage-earner — is surrounded by beautiful lawns, and pretty gardens. The climate is noted for its equableness and mildness, the mean annual temperature being 50.6"; the mean maximum, 58"; and the mean minimum, 43.3'. Rainfall is 43 inches, with little or no snow.
Trade and Commerce.-- Because of her strategic position, Tacoma has always com manded a huge water-borne commerce. In 1918 1,666 arrivals from foreign ports were recorded, with cargoes of 2,103,656 tons, while clearances for foreign ports numbered 1,803 with a tonage of 2,103,595. The total value of
imports and exports was $318,613,938. Flour exports alone totaled 2,160,474 barrels, valued at $22,747,555. The daily capacity of the flour mills is 9,000 barrels. Tacoma's wheat ware houses have a storage capacity of 8,584,300 bushels. From the time in 1869 when a schooner-load of lumber from the old Hansen null was shipped to San Francisco, Tacoma has been the leacfing lumber manufacturing city of the Pacific Coast. There are 52 mills in the district in addition to many allied lumber industries. In 1918 the lumber exports totaled 93,500,000 feet. The prin cipal steamship lines operating to the Orient are the Osaka Shosen Kaisha of Osaka, Japan, and the Pacific Steamship Company's Ad miral line. Dodwell's Blue Funnel, among other lines, also operates to Tacoma. Al ready possessing superior facilities for econom ical handling of cargoes, including large coal bunkers, electrically operated, a port commis sion of three, elected by the city following the creation of a port district in 1918, plans the expenditure of millions in construction of new waterways and improving present port facilities. The hub for the southwestern counties of Washington, Tacoma possesses a huge whole sale and jobbing trade. Her jobbing trade in 1918 totaled $160,000,000; retail trade $65, 000,000.
With 1,850 business en terprises, including over 300 manufacturing plants, Tacoma has approximately 58,116 wage-earners, with a monthly pay-roll averag ing $6,783,000. The value of manufactured output in 1918 was $152,000,000. Of this amount $27,900,000 represents the value of eight steel vessels and 42 wooden ships launched in the year by six shipyards. In the shipyard industry a maximum of 15,000 men were employed. The Todd Drydock and Construction Corporation alone employs about 8,000 men, and is one of the largest and best laid out steel shipyards in the country. The Tacoma Smelter employing 1,000 men had an output of 156,000,000 pounds of copper valued at $40,000,000 in 1918. This plant re fines one-twelfth of the world's copper output. Next in importance, come lumber and its allied industries, including the manufacture of wood ware, box shooks, baskets, furniture; and meatpacking, flour and cereal milling, candy and food products, marble, iron and steel products, including machinery, boilers and marine engines.