Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 26 >> Swordfish to Tanning

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 26

Swordfish
Swordfish, An Enormous Mackerel-like Fish (xiphias Gladius), Representing Alone The World-wide Family Xiphiider. It Has An Elongate Mackerel-shaped Body Which May Equal Is Size That Of The Largest Sharks, And Whose Muscles Are Astonishingly Strong. A Powerful Forked Tail, A Lofty, Sail-like Dorsal Fin, Usually Divided In Adults, But Continuous ...

Sycamore
Sycamore, A Name Applied Originally To Ficus Sycofflorus, A Tree Known In Biblical Times And Places, And The Legendary One Chosen By Zacthmus To Climb Into For A Sight Of The Saviour. It Is A Species Of Fig, An Evergreen Timber Tree, Flourishing In Egypt, Which Sup Plied An Inferior ...

Sydenham
Sydenham, Thomas ("the English Hippocrates" ), English Physician: B. Wynford Eagle, Dorset, 10 Sept. 1624; D. London, 29 Dec. 1689. He Entered Oxford University In 1642 But His Studies Were Interrupted By Serv Ice As An Officer In The Army Of Parliament. He Was Graduated Bachelor Of Medicine At Ox ...

Sydney
Sydney, Sid'ni, Australia, Capital Of New South Wales, On Port Jackson, Was The First City Founded In Australia, By British Colonists. Its Selection Was Due To The Beautiful Site And The Advantages Offered By Streams And Adjacent Bays. The Principal Streets Are Lined By Hand Some Residences And Commercial Houses. ...

Sydney_2
Sydney, Canada, City, Chief Port Of Entry Of Cape Breton Island And Capital Of Cape Bre Ton County, Province Of Nova Scotia, Situated On The Southwest Arm Of Sydney Harbor, 285 Miles Northeast Of Halifax; And On The Inter Colonial And The Sydney And Louisburg Railroads And On The Sydney ...

Sylvester
Sylvester, James Joseph, English Mathematician: B. London, 3 Sept. 1814; D. There, 15 March 1897. He Was Of Jewish Parentage And Was Educated At Cambridge Uni Versity, Where, However, His Religion Prevented His Taking His Degree Until After The Passing Of The Tests Act In 1872; But He Took His ...

Symbolism
Symbolism. The Word Symbol Is De Rived Indirectly From The Greek Symbolon, A Sign Or Token. Symbolism Is The Art And Doc Trine Of Symbols; It Is The Knowledge Of The Treatment Of Symbols Or Of Deciphering The Occult Intent Of Signs Or Symbols And Espe Cially In Reference To ...

Symbolists
Symbolists, The Name Of A Group Of French Writers And Their Imitators In Other Countries Whose School Arose In The Eighties And At First Was Supposed To Indicate A Reaction Against Parnassianism And Realism. The School Or Rather Style Was Inaugurated By Philippe Auguste Mathias Villiers De L'isle-adam (1838-89) Whose ...

Symbols
Symbols, Chemical, Letters Or Symbols Used In Chemistry To Designate The Various Chemical Elements. They Are Merely The First Letters Of The Names Of These Elements (not In Every Case Of Their English Name); Or When The Names Of Two Or More Elements Begin With The Same Letter, Two Letters ...

Symbols_2
Symbols, Mathematical, Signs Or Ab Breviations Used In Mathematical Operations For The Sake Of Brevity And To Facilitate Expression. In Arithmetic And Algebra There Are Four General Kinds Of Symbols Used; Namely, Those Of Quan Tity, Operation, Relation And Abbreviation. Quantities Are Generally Represented By Letters. Known Quantities Are Represented ...

Symmetry
Symmetry. From The Latin Symmetria; Proportion, Symmetry; Which, In Turn Was De Rived From The Greek Symmetric', Meaning Agreement In Dimensions, Proportionate. In Its Present-day Intent The Word Symmetry In The Language Of The Laity Can Be Defined As Har Mony Or Balance In The Proportions Of Parts As To ...

Symonds
Symonds, John Addington, English Author And Critic: B. Bristol, 5 Oct. 1840; D. Rome, 19 April 1893. Graduated From Balliol College, Oxford, In 1860, He Was Elected Fellow Of Magdalen In 1862, Undertook But Abandoned Legal Studies, And Entered Literature As A Pro Fession. For Many Years He Was Compelled ...

Sympathy
Sympathy, Is In Itself Feeling Felt, And Became Possible Only After Human Reason Began Its Operations. As Feeling, Its Discussion Be Longs To Psychology; As A Sociogenetic Power, Its Consideration Is Sociological; As A "motive Principle Of (hoffding), It Is The Concern Of The Moralist. In Any Article Such As ...

Symposium
Symposium, The. In The (symposium' Plato Tells The Story (in The Main Fictitious, No Doubt) Of A Banquet Given By Agathon In Cele Bration Of A Tragic Victory On The Stage. In Stead Of The Usual Diversions Over Their Cups The Guests Propose To Entertain Themselves With Successive Encomiums Of ...

Syndicalism
Syndicalism, A Political And Industrial Doctrine Which Demands That The Means Of Pro Duction, Distribution And Government Shall Be Turned Over To All Those Workers Who Are Ac Tively Useful And Necessary In The Community. There Are Many Different Views On The Subject, Held By The Opponents And Believers In ...

Syndromes
Syndromes, Endocrinous. The Con Ceptions Concerning The Push That Lies Behind The Metabolism Of The Human Body Even In Recent Years Have Been All Too Elementary And Simplistic. They Have, However, Slowly And Gradually Undergone Modification Until The Im Portance Of A Number Of Overlooked Structures Have Forced Themselves Within ...

Synge
Synge, Sing, John Millington, Irish Dramatist : B. Newtown Little, Near Rath Farnham, 1871; D. 24 March 1909. He Received His Education At Trinity College, Dublin, Where He Was Graduated In 1892. For About Seven Years He Studied Music In Germany And Lan Guages In Germany, Italy And France. He ...

Synnove Solbakken
Synnove Solbakken; Sol Bak'ken, A Peasant-romance By Bjornstjerne Bjornson, Was Published In 1857. Without Any Knowledge Of •auerbach's Dorfgeschichten' Or George Sand's Country Tales, Bjornson Introduced This Very Type Of The Short Story In Norwegian Literature. His Thorough Knowledge Of The Peasant Class And His Study Of The Old Sagas ...

Synonyms
Synonyms, Words Of The Same Language Which Are The Precise Equivalents Of Each Other; In Popular Acceptation, Words Sufficiently Alike In General Signification To Be Liable To Be Con Founded, But Yet So Different As To Require To Be Distinguished Are Synonyms. The Following Pairs Of Words Are Pairs Of ...

Synthesis
Synthesis, Chemical. The Building Up Or Formation Of Chemical Compounds From Their Elements Or Groups Of Their Elements. The Op Posite Of Analysis, One Meaning Of Which Is The Breaking Up Or Decomposition Of A Chemical Compound Into Its Elements. Thus The Forma Tion Of Water From Its Elements Hydrogen ...

Syphilis
Syphilis. This Is A General Infectious Disease, Chronic In Character, Which May Be Communicated Through Inoculative Contact Or Transmitted By Inheritance.. In The Acquired Form, It First Produces At The Point Of Inocula Tion A Specific Lesion Termed The Chancre, Fol Lowed By A Gradual Infection Through The Com Municating ...

Syracuse
Syracuse, Ancient Sviagosa, Sicily, A City And Seaport On The Southeastern Extremity Of The Island, 80 Miles Southwest Of Messina. It Has An Excellent Harbor Hut Has Greatly De Clined From Its Ancient Magnitude And Splendor When It Had A Population Of 500,000 Inhabitants. Ortygia, Once An Island, Now A ...

Syracuse
Syracuse, Sir-a-ktis, N. Y., City And County-seat Of Onondaga County, Situated On The New York Central And The Delaware, Lackawanna And Western Railroads, Almost Ex Actly Midway Between Albany And Buffalo, 148 Miles Either Way, In Lat. 43° 9' W. The New York State Barge Canal Reaches It, Through Onondaga ...

Syracuse University
Syracuse University, Located At Syracuse, N. Y., Was Chartered In 1870. The Collegiate Department, Which Was First Opened In 1871, Was The Continuation Of Genesee College, Founded At Lima, N. Y., In 1849. In 1872 The Geneva Medical College, Founded In 1835, Was Moved To Syracuse And Became The College ...

Syria
Syria, A Country Of Western Asia, Geo Graphically And Anthropologically A Kind Of Peninsula Of The Mediterranean, Forming A Bridge Between North And South, Connecting Asia Minor And Mesopotamia With Arabia And Egypt, And Hounded By The Sea On The West And By The Desert, Only Some 60 Miles Inland ...

Tabes Dorsalis
Tabes Dorsalis, An Affection Of The Nervous System Akin To Locomotor Ataxia And Paralysis. It Is Characterized By A Lack Of Power In Harmonizing The Action Of Certain Muscles, The Absence Of Such Co-ordinating Power Being Apparent First In The Lower Extremities, Making The Gait Straggling And Unsteady. There Is ...

Taboo Or Tabu
Taboo* Or Tabu, A Word Of Very Ex Tended Meamng Used By South Sea Islanders, To Denote Something Consecrated, Sacred, Forbid Den To Be Touched, Or Set Aside For Particular Uses Or Persons. It Is Applied Both To Persons And Things, And Both To The Object Prohibited And To The ...

Tabriz
Tabriz,. Ta-bree, Or Tavris, Ta-vres', Persia, A City In The Extreme Northwest, About A Miles From The Russian Border, Capital Of The Province Of Azerbaijan, On The Left Bank Of The Aji, 36 Miles Above Its Entrance Into Lake Urumiah, It Is Situated At The Inner Extremity Of An Amphitheatre, ...

Tabular Standard Of Value
Tabular Standard Of Value, A Project For Giving Fixity To The Value Of Money By Varying From Time To Time The Amounts Of Gold To Be Paid According To The Changes In Its Purchasing Power. The Practical Object Which Those Who Advocate The Adoption Of This Stand Ard Of Value ...

Tacitus
Tacitus, Publius Cornelius, In The Judg Ment Of Many Competent Critics The Greatest Roman Historian. Neither The Time Nor The Place Of His Birth Is Known, But Certain State Ments In His Own Works And In The Letters Of The Younger Pliny (the Two Chief Sources Of Our In Formation ...

Tacoma
Tacoma, Ti-kó-ma, Wash., Third City In Washington, Seaport, County-seat Of Pierce County, On Commencement Bay, 38 Miles South Of Seattle And 25 Miles North Of Olympia. Its Phenomenal Growth Has Given The City The Name "the City Of It Is Also Called The "city'of Beautiful And The "city With A ...

Tactics
Tactics. Tactics Has Regard To The Evo Lutions Of An Army In The Actual Presence Of An Enemy, And May Be Defined As The Strategy Of The Battlefield Or The Science Of Manoeuvring And Combining Those Military Units Which Drill, Discipline And The Regimental System Have Brought To The Perfection ...

Taft
Taft, Lorado, American Sculptor: B. Elm Wood, Ill., 29 April 1860. Of English Ancestry, Settled About 1679 In Mendon Now A Part Of 'uxbridge, Mass., His Father Was Don Carlos Taft, Professor Of Geology, University Of Illinois (1872-82), Later Banker In Hanover, Kan. He Graduated B.s. 1879, And M.l. 1880 ...

Taft
Taft, William Howard, 27th President Of The United States: B. Mount Auburn, Cin Cinnati, 15 Sept. 1857, Son Of Judge Alphonso (q.v.) And Louisa M. (torrey) Taft. After Graduating With Honors From Yale (1878) He Studied Law In Cincinnati, Being Adtnitted To The Bar In 1880. From 1881 To 1883 ...

Tagore
Tagore, Sin Rabindranath, Hindu Poet : B. Calcutta, 1861. His Father Maharshi Devendranath Tagore Was A Famous Spiritual Leader Who Belonged To A Family Dis Tinguished For Many Generations Throughout India. He Was Educated Chiefly Under Private Tutors And At The Age Of 17 Visited England. By This Time He ...

Tahr
Tahr, Tar, A Wild Goat (hemitragus Jem Laicus), Found On Steep Tree-covered Slopes Along The Whole Range Of The Himalayas From Kash Mir To Bhutan. The Horns Are About A Foot Long, Flattened, With A Notched Anterior Margin; Body Fawn-brown; The Hair Of The Neck, Chest And Shoulders Hangs To ...

Taillon
. Taillon, Ste Louis Olivier, Canadian Statesman: B. Terrebonne, Quebec. 26 Sept. 1840. He Was Educated At Masson College And Was Called To The Bar In 1865. He Engaged In Practice At Quebec In 1882 And Became One Of The Leaders Of Thebar. He Served In The Que Bec Assembly ...

Taine
Taine, Tan, Hippolyte Adolphe, French Critic And Historian: B. Vouziers, Ardennes, 21 April 1828; D. Paris, 5 March 1893. He Was Educated At The College Bourbon And The Ecole Normale,.paris, Was Assigned By The Govern Ment, Which Thought His Talent Dangerous, To A Provincial Post As Instructor, But Resigned This ...

Tait
Tait, Tat, Archibald Campbell, English Prelate, Archbishop Of Canterbury: B. Edin Burgh, 21 Dec. 1811; D. Addington, 1 Dec. 1882. Brought Up A Presbyterian, He Received His Education In The Schools Of His Native City. He Entered The University Of Glasgow In 1827, And Having Gained A Snell Exhibition He ...

Talc
Talc, One Of The Commonest And Most Important Of The Non-metallic Minerals. It Is Usually Massive Or Foliated, The Laminae Being Flexible But Not Elastic. It Is Number One In Mohs Scale Of Hardness, And Like Most Very Soft Minerals It Has A Greasy Feel. Its Lustre Is Pearly And ...

Tales Of Hoffman
Tales Of Hoffman (les Confer D'hoffman), Opera Comique In Prologue And Three Acts By Jacques Offenbach (libretto By Barbier), First Produced At Paris, 10 Feb. 1881, Several Months After The Composer's Death. In Spite Of The Unparalleled Success Which Offen Bach Had Achieved With His Light-hearted, Clever And Unfailingly Melodious ...

Tales Of The Argonauts
Tales Of The Argonauts, The. 'the Tales Of The Argonauts' Is A Volume Of Short Sketches Collected And Published By [francis] Bret Harte In 1875; But The Title Is Sometimes Loosely Applied To All This Author's Soiries Of Early California. Nothing In The 'tales Of The Argonauts' Proper Quite Equals ...

Talipot
Talipot, A Palm (corypha Umbraculifera) Of Ceylon And India, Remarkable For Possessing The Largest Inflorescence Of Any Plant. The Straight, Cylindrical Trunk Takes Over 50 Years To Attain Its Full Height; During 30 Of Those Years The Leaves Spring From Near The Ground, But Afterward The Palm Grows Rapidly Until ...

Talisman
Talisman, A Small Object Presumed To Possess An Astrological Or Mystical Charm That May Protect Or Guard The Owner In Some Way. It Was Usually Of Stone Or Metal And Bore An Engraved Figure, And Gained Its Suggested Value Because Of Certain Ceremonies, At Some Particu Lar Moment, As At ...

Talking Machine
Talking Machine. The Wonderful, Though Natural, Growth In Popularity Of The Talking Machine Has Caused Its Manufacture And Sale In The Few Years That Have Passed Since Its Perfection To Become A Truly Great Industry. Its Utility For Entertainment Purposes In The Home No Doubt Aids In The Absorption Of ...

Talladega College
Talladega College, Located At Talladega, Ala. It Is Open To All Persons With Out Regard To Color Or Race, But Is Practically For The Education Of The Negro Race, And Its Work Is Arranged To Meet Their Needs. It Was Founded In 1867 By The American Missionary Association (congregational), Aided ...

Talleyrand Perigord
Talleyrand-perigord, (eng. All-rind) Pa-re-gor', Charles Maurice De, French Diplomatist: B. Paris, 13 Feb. 1754; D. There, 17 May 1838. Although The Eldest Of Three Brothers He Was, In Consequence Of Lame Ness, Prevented From Entering The Army And Destined, Against His Will, For The Priesthood. He Commenced His Studies At ...

Tallien
Tallien, Jean Lambert, Zhon French Revolutionist: B.paris, 1769; D. Tkere, 16 Nov. 1820. He First Made Himself . Widely Known By Publishing A Revolutionary )ournal Callethelmi Citoyen. He Soon Became Une Of The Most Popular Men Of The Revolu Tionary Party, And Was Concerned In The Commo Nons Of 10 ...

Talmage
Talmage, James Edward, American Geologist And Theologian: B. Hungerford, Eng Land, 21 Sept. 1862. In 1876 He Emigrated To Utah With His Parents Who Had Embraced The Faith Of The Latter-day Saints. He Was A Student At Lehigh University 1882-83; At Johns Hopkins University 1883-84, And Was Graduated As B.s. ...

Talmage_2
Talmage, Thomas De Witt, American Presbyterian Clergyman: B. Bound Brook, N. J., 7 Jan. 1832; D. Washington, D. C., 12 April 1902. He Was Graduated From The New Brunswick Theological Seminary In 1856 And Was Ordained Pastor Of The Reformed Dutch Church, Belleville, N. J., In That Year. He Held ...

Tamarind
Tamarind, A Leguminous Tree (tama Rindus Indica) And Its Fruit. It Is Supposed To Have Originated In Eastern Tropical Africa, But Is Now Universally Cultivated In The Tropics. It Reaches A Height Of 80 Feet, And Has A Crown Of Widespreading Branches And Thick Foliage. The Leaves Are Abruptly Pinnate, ...

Tamarisk
Tamarisk, Any Member Of The Genus Tamarix, Which Is Represented By Shrubs, Also Called "flowering Cypress,* Inhabiting Warm Arid Regions, But Not Hardy In America As Far North As Massachusetts. They Are Salt-loving Plants, Often Growing So Near The Sea That The Spray Of High Breakers Dashes Over Them, And ...

Taming Of The Shrew
Taming Of The Shrew, The. 'the Taming Of The Shrew) Has Been The Most Per Manently Popular Of Shakespeare's Minor Plays And Is Still Notably Successful On The Stage. There Is Little Agreement Regarding Either The Date At Which It Was Composed Or The Extent Of Shakespeare's Concern In It. ...

Tammuz
Tammuz, Tam'ilz, A Babylonian Deity, Wor Shipped By Jews Who Drifted Into Idolatry, And Mentioned In Scripture, In Ezekiel Viii, 14: 'then He Brought Me To The Door Of The Gate Of The Lord's House Which Was Toward The North; And, Behold, There Sat Women Weeping For Tammuz." According To ...

Tampa
Tampa, Fla., City, Port Of Entry, County Scat Of Hillsborough County, At The Mouth Of Hillsborough River At Its Entrance To Tampa Bay, And On The Atlantic Coast Line And Sea Board Line Railroads, Being The Gulf Terminus Of Both, About 29 Miles From The Gulf Of Mex Ico. It ...

Tanager
Tanager, A Family Of Perching Birds (ta.nagridcr), Allied To The Finches. They Are Distinguished By The Bill Being Of Triangular Shape At Its Base And Arched Toward Its Tip. The Upper Mandible May Exhibit A Notched Appear Ance; The Wings Are Pointed And Of Moderate Length; The Feet Short And ...

Tancred
Tancred, Ting'kred, Soldier And Cru Sader: B. About 1068; D. 5 Dec. 1112. His Father Was A Sicilian Or Italian Marquis Named Odo Or Ottobonus; His Mother The Sister Of The Celebrated Norman, Robert Guiscard, Whose Eldest Son, Bohemond, Was The Friend And Brother-in-arms Of Tancred. (see Guiscard) In 1096 ...

Taney
Taney, Ta-ni, Roger Brooke, American Jurist: B. Calvert County, Md., 17 March D. Washington, D. C., 12 Oct. 1864. He Was Descended From A Leading Roman Catholic Family, Was Graduated In 1795 From Dickinson College, Read Law In Annapolis, Began Practice In 1799 And Was Immediately Elected To The House ...

Tanganyika
Tanganyika, A-gin-vela, Central Africa, A Large Lake On The Boundary Between The Kongo Free State And What Was German East Africa, Touching With Its Southern Extrem Ity On British Rhodesia. It Lies In The Great Rift Valley, Is Over 400 Miles Long, 30 Miles Wide, And Extends In A South-southeast ...

Tangent
Tangent, A Straight Line Of Indefinite Length, Which Touches But Does Not Cut A Curve; Also The Length Of A Straight Line Which Touches A Curve Measured From The Point Of Tangency To The Point Where It Meets A Diameter Of The Curve; One Of The Trigonometrical Functions. Tan Gent ...

Tangier
Tangier, Fanjet.% Or Tanja, Eareji, Morocco, A Seaport Town On The Atlantic Ocean, Near The Western Entrance Of The Strait Of Gibraltar, Southeast Of Cape Spartel. It Stands On A Height Near• A Spacious Bay, And Presents A Striking Appearance When Approached From The Sea. It Is Surrounded By Walls, ...

Tank
Tank. An Engine Of War First Used By The British In Their Attack On The Somme (france) 15 Sept. 1916. It Was Invented By Maj.-gen. E. D. Swinton, Of The British Army, Using The Propelling Principle Of The °caterpillar° Farm Tractor, Invented About 1900 By Benjamin Holt, Of Stocicton, Cal. ...

Tankage
Tankage. Fertilizer Produced From The Offal Of The Abattoirs. Waste Material Such As Tendons, Intestines, Lungs, Hair, Trimmings Of Hides, Bones, Horns, Hoofs And Some Blood Are The Chief Component Parts Of Tankage. Hair And Hide Trimmings Are Now Barred Because They Are Practically Indestructible And Retain Their Form In ...

Tanner
Tanner, John Riley, American Soldier And Statesman: B. Warwick County, Ind., 4 April 1844; D. Springfield, Iii., 23 May 1901. He Enlisted In The 98th Illinois Volunteers In 1863, And Was With Sherman's Army During Its Active Campaign In Georgia, Tennessee And Alabama. Returning To Illinois After The War, He ...

Tannhauser
Tannhauser, Tin'hoi-zer, German Min Nesinger, Probably Of Salzburg Or Bavaria, Who In The 13th Century Appears At The Court Of Frederick The Warlike And Other Princes. He Led A Wandering And Adventurous Life, And Taking Neidhart (q.v.) As His Model, Celebrated In Song The Loves Of The Bavarian Peasantry. A ...

Tanning
Tanning, Broadly Speaking, The Art Of Converting The Skins Of Animals Into Leather. The Skin Of Most Of The Higher Animals Con Sists From The Tanner's Point Of View Of Two Layers, The Outer Containing Coloring Matter, The Roots Of The Hair Or Fur, And Being Cellular In Structure; The ...