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Technology

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TECHNOLOGY, Schools of. Schools of technology in the United States are of compara tively recent date. The earliest was the Rens selaer Polytechnic Institute of Troy, N. Y. (q.v.), founded in 1824; then followed the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass., 1861; the Worcestei Polytechnic Insti tute, Worcester, Mass., 1868; Lehigh University, 1866; Stevens Institute of Technology, 1871, and the Case School of Applied Science, in 1880 (qq.v.). From that time on the number increased rapidly and in 1900 there were 43 institutions in the United States classed as schools of the technology by the Commissioner of Education. Among these are privately-en dowed institutions, like the Stevens Institute of Technology; State institutions, like the Sib ley College of Cornell University; scientific departments of older universities and schools partly industrial, like the Pratt and the Armour institutes.

Technical schools in Germany have long been graded as (1) elementary industrial schools; (2) secondary industrial schools; (3) higher institutes. The tendency' in the United States is along the same lines, pro viding all needed forms of education, includ ing more or less technical training, in con nection with universities, colleges and schools already existing. Many of the State colleges are affording in one institution the whole range of pure and applied science. The requirements for entrance to most of the technical schools of the United States are algebra, plane geom etry, English literature, the history of the United States, French and a knowledge of the common English branches. Some schools re quire solid geometry, plane trigonometry, ele mentary physics and chemistry and some re quire Latin in addition to the above. The gen eral' courses of study pursued are civil engi neering, mechanical engineering, electrical en gineering, railway engineering, mining engi eering, chemical engineering, sanitary engineer ing, architecture, pharmacy and chemistry. The length of each course is usually four years. Marine engineering forms an additional course the University of Maine, University of Michi gan, Cornell, Columbia and New York uni versities. Naval architecture is offered as a course in the Massachusetts Institute of Tech nology, in Columbia, New York and Cornell universities and in the University of Michigan, etc. Schools of forestry are connected with Yale, Michigan, Cornell and Syracuse universi ties; with the University of Nebraska and the Ohio State University. Horticulture is taught in Harvard University. Ohio State University, Iowa State' College, of Nebraska, etc. Domestic art, domestic science and the fine arts, in addition to steam and machine design and applied electricity are given prom inence in Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. At the Armour Institute, Chicago Ill., typewrit

ing, music and domestic art are added to the usual engineering courses. The universities and colleges of the United States have so univer sally added technological courses to their sys tems of instruction that it is no longer possible to separate the technological. schools. The United States Commissioner of Education has ceased to classify them separately and only a few are known as distinctly polytechnic insti tutions.

Schools of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.-- The pioneers of technical education in the United States were privately endowed schools of technology, but technical education received its greatest impulse by the "Land Grant Acts and "Morrill Bill° of Congress from .ffie year 1862 to 1890. (See Comitczs, LAND GRANTS ). Under these acts the Federal government has given more than 13,000,000 acre* of public lands for the establishment and maintenance of colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts. The name has not always been retained as acts of State legislatures and private benefactions and other causes have led to a change or to an affiliation with State in stitutions. But as a result, at least one such institution has been established and is now in operation in each State and Territory of the United States, except Alaska. The Interna tional Typographical Union has established a large school of typography at Indianapolis and the International Printing Pressmen and As sistant's Union, a school of presswork, near Rogersville, Tenn. Other trade unions are initiating the method and in this way many very important trade schools are developing. Of the institutions that have been organized under these acts, 51 are colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts, having in 1917 over 5,000 instructors; 54,931 white men students; 14,460 white women students, and 4,405 colored men and 6,208 colored women students. Separate institutions for colored students have been established in most southern States. The courses of study pursued in these schools are agriculture, all the branches of engineering, textile engineering (in North Carolina and Mississippi); forestry (in Michigan), and hor ticulture (in Washington and Virginia). Clem son Agricultural College, in South Carolina, has a full equipment of cotton machinery for illustrating the manufacture of yarn and woven fabrics. Requirements for entrance differ very greatly in different States. (For detailed infor mation regarding technical education in the United States, see EDUCATION, ENGINEERING; MANUAL TRAINING; TECHNICAL EDUCATION; TRADE SCHOOLS ) . Consult also