TEHERAN, te114-ran', Persia, (11 Capital of a province of the same name, at the north east and about 66 miles south of the Caspian Sea. It lies on an elevated plain, with the lofty ranges of Elburz and Demavend rising at the north and east, 20,000 feet being the eleva tion reached by the latter volcanic peak. The old fortifications were demolished and others were completed in 1874. A fine promenade was made on the site of the -old walls and the new fortifications are much more extensive, enclosing an area of about 10 miles. The prin cipal streets extend from the 12 gates to the central bazaar, which displays a great variety of domestic and foreign goods. The ark is the principal feature and is the name given to the citadel and its enclosures, chief of which is the handsome palace of the shah, with its extensive grounds and fountains. There arc various schools, including a Koran school and a college conducted by European professors. Besides numerous mosques, the buildings of the British legation and of other legations are worthy of notice and the suburbs lying at the foot of the Elburz hills, contain many charm ing villas resorted to by the wealthier class in warm weather. The ruins• of Rei, in the vi cinity, are among the most remarkable of Persia. Water supplied to the town by 30 sub
terranean canals, is brought from the north ern slopes and in 1866 a tramway was con structed to Shah Abdul Azim, a place of pil grimage south of Teheran and others were built connecting various sections of the town. Gas was first used in 1892 to light the city. Hanin el-Raschid was born in the vicinity. The man ufactures include carpets, silks, cotton goods and ironware. In 1913 the police service of Teheran was turned over to the control of Swedish officials, the Swedes having largely officered the Persian army. Pop. (est.) 280,000. (?) The province of Teheran comprises six districts, containing much fine agricultural land and numerous villages, two of which are held in fief by the British and Russian governments respectively. There are fine coal fields in Kas ran and streams abounding in fish. Veramin District is watered by the Jijrucl River. The chief products are fruit and grain, wheat, barley and nce. A railway, passing through Meso potamia, connects the Mediterranean with the Black Sea and the Gulf of Persia. It furnishes an all-rail route from Calcutta to the British Charmel and shortens the distance from Te heran to Constantinople by two weeks.