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Tennessee

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TENNESSEE, tEn-nEs-se Mtn VOLUN TEER STATED), a southern-central State of the United States. Kentucky and Virginia lie to the north; North Carolina to the east ; Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi to the south; and Arkansas and Missouri to the west. Its length on the northern side is 436 miles; that on the southern side is 100 miles less. The area is approximately 42,050 square miles, of which something like 300 miles are covered by the water of streams. The southern boundary of Tennessee was intended to follow the 35th parallel, but all parts of it lie from a fraction of a mile to a mile south of that line, excepting the 45 miles east of Tennessee River, between Alabama and Tennessee. That part of the northern boundary between Tennessee and Mis sissippi rivers is on the parallel of 36° 30'. Immediately east of Tennessee River, the north ern boundary is miles north of parallel 36° 30'. Eastward from this point the bound ary is not straight but on the whole approaches that line, coming within approximately five miles of it, in the middle of Claiborne County. Here there is a jog of about a mile to the north. There is a similar but somewhat greater one in the' eastern part of Sullivan County. It was she intention to make the crest of the Great Smoky or Unaka Mountains the eastern bound ary between Tennessee and North Carolina. The most eastern point of the State is in John son County, and is approximately 81° 4154' W. longitude. The western boundary is the mid dle of the Mississippi River as the channel ran in 1763, at the time of a treaty between the British and French. The most western point is in Shelby County, and is approximately 90° 28' W. longitude.

Surface Features.—Tennessee has eight well-defined natural divisions: (1) On its eastern borders rises in great ridge-like masses and treeless domes the main axis of the Ap palachian chain, the loftiest peaks of which reach an elevation of 6,600 feet above the sea. Many beautiful valleys and coves nestle amid this grand range of mountains, which is known as the Unalca or Smoky Mountains, and which has an area, approximately, of 2,000 square miles. (2) Adjoining these mountains on the west is the second natural division, called the Valley of East Tennessee, which lies between the Unakas on the southeast and the Cumber land Mountains on the northwest This valley has a fluted bottom, made up of a succession of minor ridges and valleys with a northeast southwest trend. Viewed from the mountains

on either side, these minor ridges and valleys melt into a common plain. This valley has an area of 9,200 square miles and is of great agricultural value. It is the southwestward extension of Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. (3) Next in order, going westward, is the Cumberland Plateau, which rises 2,000 feet and more above the sea, and 1,000 feet above the last-mentioned division. It forms a bold es carpment, on its eastern edge presenting a gray, rocky, formidable rampart. Its western edge is irregular and jagged, notched and scalloped by re-entrant coves and valleys which are separated by finger-like spurs, pointing for the most part in a northwesterly direction. Most of the northern part of the plateau is cut to pieces by deep, narrow ravines, between which are sharp-topped ridges. The southern half is divided lengthwise into tvto parts by the deep cut Sequatchie Valley. The area of this divi sion is 5,100 s uare miles. (4) Resting against the western e e of the Cumberland tableland and including e elevations bordering the Ten nessee River in its return across the State are the Highlands, or Rimlands, having an average elevation of 900 feet above the sea. For the most part this division is a flat plain furrowed by numerous ravines traversed by streams. Its area is 9,300 square miles and it surrounds, in an irregular circle, the next division. (5) Sur rounded by these Highlands lies the Central Basin, elliptical in shape, with an area of 5,450 square miles. It is the finest agricultural region in the State, and is on an average of 300 feet lower than the Highlands that border it. (6) The valley of the Tennessee River comes next on the west Its surface is broken and irregu lar, and it stretches across the State from south to north on both sides of Tennessee River. It has an average width of 12 miles and an elevation of 350 feet Its area is approxi mately 1,200 square miles. (7) The slope of West Tennessee constitutes the seventh natural division.and diners from all the other divisions _ .

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