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Terence

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TERENCE, ariens (Pustrus TERENTIUS Aims), Roman writer of comedies: b. Carthage, Africa, between 185 and 195 s.c.; d. probably in Greece, 159 s.c. While yet a child he was bought by Publius Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator, who took him to Rome and gave him a good education. His master having emanci pated him the young African now assumed the name of his benefactor. Lmlius and Scipio Africanus (the destroyer of Carthage and Numantia) admitted him to their intimacy, and as some aver, assisted him in the composition of his plays. About the year 161 he went to Greece, where he is said to have translated 108 of Menander's (q.v.) comedies. Six comedies of Terence's alone are extant— the 'Andria,) the Eunuchus, Heautontimorumenos,' Phor mio,' and the 'Adelphi,' his last piece, brought out in Rome the year before his death. The comedies of Terence were much admired by the cultivated Romans for their exquisite style, the language of Cicero, Caesar and the orators, and were likewise esteemed for their maxims and moral sentences. If we com pare him with Plautus, his only important predecessor, we miss what Caesar styled the axis comica,* that sparkling wit and humor which made Plautus the model of Moliere. On the other hand Terence has the finer vein of sentiment, the more subtle power of character ization and the purer latinity. He was indeed the founder of polite comedy, the comedy of society in Europe and his influence has been felt throughout the whole history of literature. Most of his plays follow closely the originals of Menander, but from the fragments of Menander which remain they do not appear to be mere translations. The comedies of Ter ence have been translated into English by the elder Coleman and several others. (See ADEL PHI). Consult The edition of Bentley (1726); Vollbehr (1846) ; Dziatzko (1884), and Con radt, 'Die metrische Composition der Comodien des Terentius' (1876).

TERESA, (Sp. Saint (properly Theresia), Spanish conventional re former: b. Avila, Old Castile, 28 March 1515; d. Alba, 4 Oct. 1582. Her attention was drawn in childhood to lives of saints and martyrs and when she and her brother were children under 10 they set off into the country of the Moors in hopes that some infidel would seize and kill them on account of their faith and that they would thus obtain the crown of martyrdom.

Defeated in their object they attempted to be come hermits. Her father, a nobleman, Don de Cepeda, placed her, after the death of her devout mother, in a monastery of the Carinelites at Avila when she was 16 and though she lived for some years• there without any of her early religious enthusiasm, a change came over her at 20 and she took the veil. Her new spirit of devotion was deepened by reading the 'Con fessions of Saint Augustine' and being much distressed by the apparent decay of discipline which she saw around her, she founded in 1562 another convent at Avila, dedicating it to Saint Joseph and introducing a new order, the Dis calced or Barefooted Carmelites, also called Teresians. She began by making this a gen uinely mendicant order, but modified this detail of the rule in obedience to her superiors. From this mother house there sprang 16 other in stitutions of the same order. She spent the later part of her life in traveling from one to another of these branch houses and the staff, cross and rosary she wore on these pil grimages are still preserved at Avila. She was seized with her last illness in the palace of the Duchess of Avila, but at her own request was carried to her convent of San Jose, where she expired surrounded by her followers. Gregory XV canonized her (1622) and appointed 15 October as her festival and Philip III declared her the second patron saint of the monarchy, Saint James (Santiago) being the first. This decree was confirmed by the Cortes in 1812. She also has a worldwide reputation as a mystic, and among the most famous books of devotion which the Roman Catholic Church can boast are her five works: o Re lacion de Su Vida' (1562); 'El Camino de la Perfeccion' (1563) ; 'El Libro de las Funda ciones' ; 'El Castillo Interior' (1577), and 'Santos Conceptos del Amor de Dios.' These have been translated into most of the lan guages of Europe. Consult 'Saint Theresa' (edited by Cardinal Manning, 1865); Graham, 'Santa Teresa' (1894); Jameson, 'Legends of the Monastic Orders' ; Senonville, 'Sainte Therese et son Mysticisone' (1893) • Joly, 'Saint Teresa' (1903); 'Vie de Sainte Therese, Ecrete par Elle-Metne) (15th edition, edited by Jules Peyre, 1904).