THESSALY, tha'01, or THESSALIA, the northeastern division of ancient Greece proper, bounded on the north by the Cam bunian Mountains, separating it from Mace donia; on the west by the chains of Pindus and Tymphrestus, separating it from Epirus; on the south by Mount lEta, separating it from 2Etolia, Doris and Locris; and on the east by the "Egean Sea. The rich plain enclosed be tween these mountains belongs almost entirely to one river basin, that of the Peneios (Salam bria), which traverses it from west to east, and finds an outlet into the Thermaic Gulf through the vale of Tempe. It was especially famed for its fine breed of horses and its skilful horse men. The name of Thessaly was derived from the Thessali, a Greek people who are said to have come into this land from the west, and who became the governing class in the country. Thessaly was broken up into separate states loosely united under a tagus, and long exerted no important influence on the affairs of Greece generally; but it rose for a brief period to a position of greater consequence when (about 375 a.c.) Jason of Phern, having been elected tagus, brought the whole of Thessaly com pletely under his power, and began to threaten the rest of Greece, but the confederacy was again weakened after his assassination in 370 B.C. Thessaly afterward became dependent on
Macedonia, and finally was incorporated with the Roman Empire. In 1393, after the fall of the Byzantine Empire, Thessaly came, with the rest of the imperial dominions, into the hands of the Turks, and till recently formed a part of the Ottoman Empire. The greater portion of it was in 1881 incorporated in the kingdom of Greece. The Greco-Turkish War of 1897 was fought principally within the borders of Thessaly. Consult Baedeker, K., 'Greece' (4th English ed., Leipzig 1909) ; Kent, R. G., 'A History of Thessaly from the Earliest Histori cal Times to the Accession of Philip V of Macedon' (Lancaster, Pa., 1904) ; Leake, W. M., (Travels in Northern Greece' (4 vols., Lon don 1835) ; Philippson, A., (Thessalien and Enirus' (Berlin 1897) ; Wace and Thompson, 'Prehistoric Thessaly' (Cambridge 1912).