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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 26

Thacher
Thacher, James, American Physician And Surgeon: B. Barnstable, Mass., 14 Feb. 1754; D. Plymouth, Mass., 26 May 1844. He Studied With Dr. Abner Hersey In Barnstable And In 1775 Was Appointed Surgeon's Mate In The Cambridge Hospital Under Dr. John War Ren. The Following Year He Was Made Sur Geon's ...

Thackeray
Thackeray, William Makepeace, Eng Lish Novelist: B. Calcutta, 18 July 1811; D. Lon Don, 24 Dec. 1863. His Father, Richmond Thackeray, Who Was A Jttdge And Collector Of Revenues In India, Came Of A Good Yorkshire Family. His Mother Was Anne Becher, A Cal Cutta Beauty Belonging To A Family ...

Thalia
Thalia, • The Blooming One,' One Of The Nine Muses. She Was The Muse Of Comedy And Pastoral Poetry, And Is Usually Represented With The Comic Mask And The Shep Herd's Crook In Her Hand. One Of The Graces Was Also Called Thalia. See Graces. A Metallic Element' Discov Ered ...

Thames
Thames, Temz, England, The Most Import Ant And Famous River In Great Britain, Rising In Gloucestershire, And Flowing In An Irregular Eastward Course Into The North Sea. It Sepa Rates The Counties Of Gloucester, Oxford, Buckingham, Middlesex And Essex On The North From Wilts, Berks, Surrey And Kent On The ...

Thames_2
Thames, Battle Of The, In The War Of 1812. On 12 Sept. 1813 General Harrison, Who Was Still At Seneca On The Sandusky River (see Frenchtown, Battle Of), Received Word Of Perry's Victory On Lake Erie (see Erie, Lake, Battle Of; Perry, O. H.) And Began To Pre Pare For ...

Theatre
Theatre (greek, Na Place For Seeing,* From Otafftkil To Regard Or Look At), Literally Any Building Used For Purposes Of Exhibition, Hut Now Generally Applied To A Place In Which Dramatic And Musical Performances Are Given. The Theatre May Be Considered As A Form Which Found Its Earliest Expres Sion ...

Thebes
Thebes, Thebz (egyptian Net, The No Of The Bible; Greek Thebai Or Diospolis), Egypt, A Famous Ancient City, Whose Ruins Are Situated On The Banks Of The Nile, 350 Miles Southeast Of Cairo, Near The Modern Villages Of Karnak And Luxor. The Ruins Are Among The Most Mag Nificent In ...

Thebes_2
Thebes (greek, Thebai), Greece, The Principal City Of Bceotia, Was Situated On An Elevated Plateau, South Of Mount Phaga, Its Site Now Being Occupied By The Unimportant Modern Town Of Thive (pop. 3,500), At The Junction Of The Road Leading North From Athens, With The Transversal Road Leading From The ...

Theism
Theism, The Doctrine Of The Existence Of A God Or Gods. It May Take The Form Either Of Monotheism Or Polytheism And Is Opposed Only To Atheism, Which Denies The Existence Of Such Divine Beings. From Its Use To Express The Belief Of Cultured Christian Peoples, The Term Has Been ...

Themistocles
Themistocles, The-mis'to-klez, Greek General And Statesman: B. Athens, About 514 A.c.; D. Magnesia, Asia Minor, 449 A.c. He Early Displayed Unusual Ability And Great Ambi Tion. The Ostracism Of Aristides In 483 Was In Part Due To His Influence, And He Thereupon Be Came The Political Leader In Athens. He ...

Theobald
Theobald, The&-bild, Lewis, English Dramatist And Shakespearean Scholar: B. Sit Tingbourne, Kent, 2 April 1688; D. London, 18 Sept. 1744. His Classical Attainments Were Con Siderable And By 1715 He Had Published Trans Lations Of Plato's (plia.do) ; The 'electra,' 'ajax' And (cedipus Rex' Of Sophocles And The (plutus' And ...

Theocritus
Theocritus, The-olc'ri-tils, Greek Bu Colic Poet: B. Syracuse, According To Others At Cos, And Flourished About 280 B.c. He Was A Pupil Of Philetas At Cos. Having Gone To Egypt, He Was Treated With Much Distinction By Ptolemy Philadelphus, In Whose Praise He Wrote Idyls 14, 15 And 17, But ...

Theodoret
Theodoret, The-m.6-ra (greek, Eeodzipros), Church Historian And Theological Writer: B. Antioch, Late In The 4th Century; D. 457. He Was Educated In A Monastery Near Antioch, Where He Had Nestorius And John Of Antioch For Fellow-pupils. After 25 Years' Study And Retirement He Succeeded Isidorus (423) As Bishop Of Cyrus, ...

Theodoric The Great
Theodoric The Great, King Of The Ostrogoths: B. About 454; D. 526. His Father, Theodemer, Was One Of The Three Brothers Who Jointly Ruled The Ostrogoths Set Tled In Pannonia, And He Sent Him, When Only Eight Years Of Age, To Constantinople As A Hostage, To Secure The Conditions Of ...

Theodosius
Theodosius (surnamed The Great), Roman Emperor: B. Spain, About 346; D. Milan, 17 Jan. 395. At A Very Early Age He Obtained A Separate Command; But On The Execution Of His Father He Sought Retirement, Until Selected By The Emperor Gratian, In 379, For His Partner In The Empire. To ...

Theology
Theology, The Science Of Religion. This Term, Together With The Corresponding Personal Term, Antedates The Christian Era, Having Been Used By Classic Writers Both Greek And Roman. In The View Of Aristotle, Cicero And Others The Man Who Appeared To Be Specially Conversant With The Divine Nature Was Fitly Called ...

Theosophy
Theosophy, As Its Greek Deriv;tives Signify, Means Divine Wisdom — Wisdom Con Cerning God. It Is That General System Of Thought Which Has Appeared In All Ages Shaping • Itself In One Form And Another And Which Has Attempted To Explain The Nature Of God, The Uni Verse And Man's ...

Therapeutics
Therapeutics, That Branch Of Medicine Which Deals With The Treatment Of Disease. Natures Cures; Physicians Treat. This Is An Old Dogma As True To-day As It Was When Uttered Over 2,000 Years Ago By A Famous Greek Physi Cian. Scientists Have Termed That Power Of The Human Body The Vis ...

Thermit
Thermit, A Name Given By Goldschmitt To A Mixture Of Fine Aluminum Filings Or Pow Der And Iron Oxide. When This Mixture Is Ignited By Some Suitable Means The Aluminum Unites Vigorously With The Oxygen Of The Iron Oxide, Forming A Very Pure Variety Of Steel And A Slag Consisting ...

Thermo Electricity
Thermo-electricity), One Of Whose Junctions Is Kept At A Constant Temperature, While The Other Is Exposed To The Temperature That Is To Be Measured. Of These Four General Methods, The First Two Have Been Longest And Most Com Monly Employed; And The Particular Instru Ments That Have Been Most Extensively ...

Thermoelectricity
Thermoelectricity. If An Elec Trical Circuit Is Constructed Partly Of One Metal And Partly Of Another, And Ohe Of The Points Of Junction Between The Dissimilar Metals Is Heated While The Other Is Kept Cool, A Current.of Elec Tricity Will Be Caused To Flow In The Circuit. This Fundamental Fact ...

Thermograph
Thermograph (greek, "heat-writing)), Any Form Of Self-registering Thermometer (q.v.), By Which An Automatic Record Of Varia Tions Of Temperature Is Kept. Many Different Types Of Thermograph Have Been Made, Of Which The Following May Be Especially Noted: (1) Photographic Thermographs, In Which The Posi Tion Of The Mercury Thread In ...

Thermometer
Thermometer (greek "heat-meas Urer)), An Instrument For Determining The Tem Peratures Of Bodies. The General Problem Of Thermometry Is Considered, In This Encyclopedia, Under The Heading Thermometry ; And The Present Article Will He Devoted Mainly To The Consideration Of The Common Mercury-in-glass Form Of The Instrument, And To Certain ...

Thermometry
Thermometry, The Art Of Measuring Temperatures. The "measurement" Of Temper Ature Is Quite A Different Thing From The Meas Urement Of A Time, Or A Length, Or A Mass, And It Consists Merely In Assigning To Each Temper Ature That May Come Up For Consideration A Definite Place Upon Some ...

Thermopywe
Thermopywe (gk. Eepporfaat Hot Gates), In Classical Geography, A Pass On The Southeastern Frontier Of Ieniania, Greece, Lead Ing From Thessaly Into Locris, And On The Route Of The Only Good Road From Thessaly To Central Greece. It Was Situated Between The Range Of Mount (eta And An Inaccessible Morass ...

Thermoscope
Thermoscope (greek, *to Show Heat"), Any Instrument For Indicating Tempera Ture. The Term Is Commonly Applied, However, To Such Instruments As Indicate One Tempera Ture Only, Or A Very Limited Number Of Temper Atures; Or To Those Which Are Used For Indicat Ing Changes Or Difference Of Temperature, With Out ...

Theseus
Theseus, The'sfis Or Thd'se-fis, In Greek Legend, A King Of Athens And National Hero Of Attica, Son Of /egeus By .1ethra, The Daughter Of Pittheus Of Trcezen, In Peloponnesus. He Was Educated At Trcezen, At The House Of Pittheus, And Passed For The Son Of Poseidon (neptune). When He Came ...

Thessalonians
Thessalonians, Epistles To The. While Paul's Authorship Of The First Epistle To The Thessalonians Has Occa Sionally Been Questioned, The Consensus Of Critical Opinion Is At The Present Time So Nearly Unanimous In Favor Of Its Genuineness That It Seems Needless To Argue The Question At All. The External Evidence ...

Thessaly
Thessaly, Tha'01, Or Thessalia, The Northeastern Division Of Ancient Greece Proper, Bounded On The North By The Cam Bunian Mountains, Separating It From Mace Donia; On The West By The Chains Of Pindus And Tymphrestus, Separating It From Epirus; On The South By Mount Leta, Separating It From 2etolia, Doris ...

Thibault
Thibault, Jacques Anatole France, Critic And Novelist: B. Paris, 16 April 1844. He Is Known Wherever French Is Read And The Latin Genius Appreciated As France, And Was Called By Lemaitre, One Of The Shrewd Est Of His Contemporaries, "the Ultimate Flower Ing Of The Latin Genius." Son Of A ...

Thierry
Thierry, Jacques Nicolas Augustin, French Historian: B. Blois, 10 May 1795; D. Paris, 22 May 1856. He Was Educated In The Normal School At Paris In 1811, And In 1813 Became Teacher In A Provincial School. The Following Year He Quit This Occupation And Returned To Paris, Where He Embraced ...

Thiers
Thiers, Tear, Louis Adolphe, French Statesman And Historian: B. Marseilles, 15 April 1797; D. Saint Germain, Paris, 3 Sept. 1877. He Studied Law At Aix, And Was Admitted To The Bar There In 1818. Desirous Of A Larger Theatre For His Ambition He Went To Paris In 1821, And Hav ...

Third Century
Third Century. The Central Interest Of This Period Lies In The Fact That The Roman Empire At The Climax Of Its Power And Extent, Iust When Prestunably It Ought To Be Consolidat Ing Itself For A Still Greater Future, Began Slowly But Surely To Crumble Under The Attacks Of The ...

Third Rail System
Third-rail System, In Electric Rail Way Construction, A Method Of Supplying Trains On An Electric Railway With Current Sent Through A Conductor Located On The Track And Termed A Third Rail. Being The First Electric System For Handling Heavy Traffic, It Possesses Unusual In Terest. In Starting A Train Of ...

Thirlwall
Thirlwall, Therrwal, Connop, English Prelate And Historian: B. Stepney, Middlesex, 11 Jan. 1797; D. Bath, 27 July 1875. He Was Edu Cated At The Charter-house And At Trinity Col Lege, Cambridge, Where He Obtained A Fellow Ship. He Afterward Studied For The Law And Was Called To The Bar In ...

Thirst
Thirst, A Craving For Water Or Other Drink. As Appetite Shows A Need For The Intro Duction Of Food Into The System, So Thirst Is A Sensation Indicating The Necessity Of An In Creased Supply Of Water. This Sensation Is Referred To The Throat, Yet It Is Not A Purely ...

Thirteenth Century
Thirteenth Century. John Fiske In 'the Beginnings Of New England' Terms This Period "the Glorious Thirteenth Century° . . . "a Wonderful Time, But After All Less Memorable As The Culmination Of Mediaeval Empire And Medimval Church Than As The Dawn Ing Of The New Era In Which We Live ...

Thirty Years War
Thirty Years' War, So Called Be Cause It Lasted From 1618 To 1648, Was At First A Struggle Between Protestants And Roman Catho Lics, North Germany Supporting The Former, And Southern Germany, With Austria At Its Head, The Latter Cause. It Gave The Swedes An Opportunity To Extend Their Dominion ...

Thistle
Thistle, A Composite Plant Of The Genera Carduus, Cirsium, Centaurea, Onopordon Or Sonchus. Other Related Plants Are The Golden Thistle Or Spanish Oyster-plant (scolymus His Panicus) Whose Roots Are Used As A Vegetable Like Salsify And Parsnip, Which They Resemble Somewhat Closely In Flavor; Globe-thistles (echinops), Often Planted In Shrubberies ...

Thistlewood
Thistlewood, Arthur, English Con Spirator: B. Tupholm, Lincolnshire, 1770; D. London, 1 May 1820. He Is Said To Have Im Bibed Anarchistic Doctrines From The Writings Of Paine And From A Visit To France Before The Fall Of Robespierre. He Entered The Army In 1798 And Rose To The Rank ...

Thoburn
Thoburn, Isabella, American Missionary And Educator: B. Near Saint Clairsville, Ohio, 29 March 1840; D. Lucicnow, India, 1 Sept. 1901. She Came Of Scotch-irish Parentage. She Was Educated In The Wheeling Female Seminary, Supplemented By A Year In The Study Of Art At The Cincinnati Academy Of Design. After Teaching ...

Thoburn_2
Thoburn, Joseph, American Soldier: B. Carrickfergus, Ireland, 29 April 1825. D. Cedar Creek, 19 Oct. 1864. In August Folrow Ing His Parents Emigrated To America, Settling On A Farm In Belmont County, Ohio. His Edu Cation Was Obtained In The Primitise Rural Schools Of The Period, Supplemented By Diligent Private ...

Thoma
Thoma, Trim?, Ludwig, German Satiric Novelist And Dramatist: B. Oberammergau, 21 Jan. 1867. He Attended Gymnasia At Munich And Landshut, The Forestry School At Aschaf Fenburg, And, In Order To Study Law, The Uni Versities Of Munich And Erlangen, Thus Obtain Ing His Entire Education In Bavaria. For A Short ...

Thomas
Thomas, Saint, Also Called Didymus (tomas Being The Aramaic; Didyntecs, The Greek Word Signifying "twins), One Of The Twelve Apostles Known As The Doubter. He Is Said To Have Been A Native Of Antioch, The Twin Brother Of A Sister Lysias, Children Of Diophanes And Rhoa. Ensebius Implies That He ...

Thomas_2
Thomas, George Henry, American Sol Dier: B. Southampton County, Va., 31 July 1816; D. San Francisco, Cal., 28 March 1870. On His Father's Side He Was Of Welsh And English Ancestry. His Mother Was Of Huguenot Descent. He Received This Early Edu Cation At Southampton Academy, Near His Home, And ...

Thomas_3
Thomas, Theodore, American Musician: B. Esens, East Friesland, 11 Oct. 1835; D. Chi Cago, Ill., 4 Jan. 1905. He Played The Violin In Public At The Age Of Six And When Only 10 Made His First Public Appearance In New York. In His Early Concert And Operatic Engagements He Appeared ...

Thompson
Thompson, Benjamin, Count Rumford, American Physicist: B. North Woburn, Mass., 26 March 1753; D. Auteuil, Near Paris, 21 Aug. 1814. He Entered A Salem Counting-house In 1766, Later Was Made Major Of New •hamp Shire Militia By The English Governor, Went Worth, But, Charged With Being A Tory, Fled To ...

Thompson_2
Thompson, Sts John David Sparrow, Canadian Jurist And For Some Time Premier Of The Dominion: B. Halifax, 10 Nov. 1844; D. Windsor, England, 12 Dec. 1894. His Father, Who Had Come From Waterford, Ireland, Held The Office Of Queen's Printer. Thompson Was Educated At The Common School, Halifax, And Was ...

Thompsons Station
Thompson's Station, Battle Of. After The Battle Of Stone River (q.v.) The Con Federate Cavalry Were Active On Rosecrans' Flanks And Rear, And Late In February 1863 Gen. Earl Van Dorn, With Over 6,000 Men, Crossed The Tennessee River At Florence And Marched Northward To Columbia, On Duck River, Threat ...

Thomson
Thomson, Sia Charles Wyville, Scot Tish Naturalist: B. Bonsyde, Linlithgow, 5 March 1830; D. There, 10 March 1882. He Was Edu Cated At The University Of Edinburgh, Where He Took The Medical Course And Showed Great Ability In Botany And Natural History. He Was Appointed Lecturer On Botany In King's ...

Thomson_2
Thomson, Elihu, American Inventor And Electrician: B. Manchester, England, 29 March 1853. In 1858 He Came To The United States, Was Educated In The Public Schools In Philadelphia And From 1870 To 1880 Was Professor Of Chemis Try And Mechanics In The Central High School There. After A Visit To ...

Thomson_3
Thomson, James, Scottish Poet: B. Ednam, Roxburghshire, 11 Sept. 1700; D. Rich Mond, Surrey, 27 Aug. 1748. He Was Educated At The University Of Edinburgh In 1715 And At First Intended To Enter The Ministry, But In 1725 Went To London To Devote Himself To Literature. His Poem On (winter' ...

Thomson_4
Thomson, Joseph, Scottish Explorer In Africa : B. Penpont, Dumfriesshire, 14 Feb. 1858; D. London, 3 Aug. 1895. He Was Edu Cated At The University Of Edinburgh And There Distinguished Himself So Highly That He Was Appointed In 1878 Geologist And Naturalist To The Exploring Expedition•sent Out To East Cen ...

Thomson_5
Thomson, Thomas, British Chemist: B. Crieff, 12 April 1773; D. Near Holy Loch, 2 July 1852. He Was Educated At Crieff, Stirling And The University Of Saint Andrews, And In 1799 Graduated M.d. At Edinburgh. He Edited The Supplement To The Third Edition Of The 'encyclopa-dia Britannica,' To Which He ...

Thomson_6
Thomson, William, 1st Lord Kelvin, British Mathematician And Physicist: B. Belfast, 26 June 1824; D. Glasgow, Scotland, 17 Dec. 1907. He Was Graduated From Cambridge In 1845, And In 1841 Published A Paper 'on The Uniform Motion Of Heat In Homogeneous Solid Bodies, And In Connection With The Mathematical Theory ...

Thoreau
Thoreau, Tho'r6, Henry David, Ameri Can Apoet-naturalist': B. Concord, Mass., 12 July 1817; D. There, 6 May 1862. He Was Grad Uated At Harvard In 1837 And Began In That Year The Copious Journal With Which In 1850-450 He Filled 30 Manuscript Volumes, Did Some Teach Ing At Concord And ...

Thorpe
Thorpe, Thorp, Francis Newton, Ameri Can Author And Jurist: B. Swampscott, Mass., 16 April 1857. He Was Educated At Lake Shore Seminary, At Syracuse University (ph.d., 1883; Ll.d., 1907). He Was Fellow And Professor Of American Constitutional His Tory Of The University Of Pennsylvania (1885 98) And University Of Pennsylvania ...

Thorwaldsen
Thorwaldsen, Albert Bartholomew (bertel), Danish Sculptor: B. Copenhagen, 19 Nov. 1770; D. There, 24 March 1844. His Father, An Icelander, Was Employed In The Royal Dockyard At Copenhagen In Cutting Figure-heads For Vessels, And Little Thor Waldsen's First Employment Was In Helping His Father. In His Ilth Year He Entered ...

Thothmes
Thothmes, Thoth'mez Or Them& (son Of Thoth) ; The Name Of Four Egyptian •kings. Under Thothmes I, Egypt Saw Its Darkest Days Come To End With The Expulsion Of The Hyksos, And The Revival Of Truly National Art And Civil Ization And Of National Power. The Era Of For Eign ...

Thought
Thought, A Cognitive Relation Other Than That Of Direct Awareness, Born By The Mind Either Toward An Object Which Is Believed To Exist, Or Toward A So-called "abstract Object," Such As A Universal, Concerning Which The Question Of Existence Has No Meaning. This Latter Feature Distinguishes Thought From Imagination In ...

The Cualnge Tam B6
Tam B6 Cualnge, The Cualnge The Mediaeval Irish Schol Ars Catalogued Their Native Literature Under Several Heads, To One Of Which They Gave The Name Tain, By Which They Meant A "reavine Or A "driving Of Cattle. The Most Important Tale Betonging To This Class Is The Subject Of This ...