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Thomson

chemistry, published and mineralogy

THOMSON, Thomas, British chemist: b. Crieff, 12 April 1773; d. near Holy Loch, 2 July 1852. He was educated at Crieff, Stirling and the University of Saint Andrews, and in 1799 graduated M.D. at Edinburgh. He edited the supplement to the third edition of the 'Encyclopa-dia Britannica,' to which he con tributed the articles 'Chemistry,' 'Mineralogy' and 'Vegetable, Animal and Dyeing Sub stances.' In the article 'Mineralogy' he used the system of symbolic representation, but it is incorrect to describe him as the introducer of this auxiliary of chemical science. In 1800 on the completion of the 'Encyclopaedia,' he began a course of lectures on chemistry, which he continued till 1811, opening, in addition, a lab oratory for practical instruction in chemistry, about the first institution of the kind in Great Britain. In 1802 he published the first edition of his 'System of Chemistry,' which obtained rapid success both in Great Britain and on the Continent. In 1810 he published his 'Elements of Chemistry.' His 'History of the Royal

Society' appeared in 1812. In 1813 he went to London and began there a scientific journal, the Annals of Philosophy, which he con tinued to edit till the end of 1820. The lec tureship in chemistry in the University of Glas gow was conferred on him in 1817, the office being shortly after%Nard raised 1r, a professor ship, and he himself created t, ins professor of chemistry in 1q18 on the atomic theory was published in two volumes in 1825, under the title of 'Attempt to Establish the First Principles of Chemistry by Experiment.' The accuracy of the work was severely crit icized by the Swedish chemist Berzelius. Thomson discovered a large number of chem ical compounds, such as hyposulphurous acid, chlorochromic acid and a great variety of salts. In 1830-31 he published his 'History of Chemistry,' and in 1836 appeared his 'Outlines of Mineralogy and Geology.' In 1846 he re tired from his professional duties.