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death, national and egyptian

THOTHMES, thoth'mez or them& (son of Thoth) ; the name of four Egyptian •kings. Under Thothmes I, Egypt saw its darkest days come to end with the expulsion of the Hyksos, and the revival of truly national art and civil ization and of national power. The era of for eign invasion, with the consequent enrichment of the royal treasury, began. Ethiopia was made a tributary state, and eastward the limits of Egyptian power were pushed as far as to the Euphrates. At his death Thothmes I was suc ceeded by Thothmes II, his eldest son, vvith Hatasu, his daughter, and Thottunes III, his younger .son, as coregents. Thothmes II beautified Thebes, but his reign was brief and insignificant. Thothtnes III was the Alexander of Egyptian history. After the death of Hatasu he entered upon that series of wars which comprised 14 campaigns, in the course of which he subdued Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia in part, and large tracts of territory between the Euphrates and the Mediterranean. Tlac

names of the cities he took, including Megiddo and Tyre, are inscribed in his triumphant self eulogy on the walls of Karnak. He added ex tensively to the architectural glories of Thebes. As Hatasu, the Semiramis of Egypt, erased the name of the Thothmes II, her half-brother, from his monument at Karnak, so was her name erased with the record of her cam paigns, during which she appeared in male at tire, from the recording inscriptions by Thotlunes III. He reigned from 1503 to 1449 L.C. He was succeeded by Amenhotep II at whose death Thothmes IV began his reign. Tlae latter waged war in Ethiopia, Syria and Phcenicia, but his career was without national or political significance. Consult Breasted, J. H., (History of the Ancient Egyptians' (New York 1908).