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TIECK, Johann Ludwig, German drama tist and novelist of the Romantic School, known also under the pseudonyms, PETER LEBREGHT and Gomm FARBER: b. Berlin, 31 May 1773; d. Berlin, 28 April 1853. He was of lowly origin, his father being a poor ropemaker. From 1782 to 1792 he attended the Friedrichs werder Gymnasium in his native city, coming under the influence of teachers with literary inclinations (Rambach, A. F. Bcrnhardi), and beginning a friendship with Wackenroder that was to last until the latter's death. His wish to become an actor was denied by his parents, and he was obliged to go to the Uni versity of Halle (1792) to study theology and philology, and to the University of Gottingen (1792-95), where he took up modern philology and literature. In 1797 he wrote cheap stories for the apostle of enlightenment at Bcrlin, Nico lai, and, during a short .stay in Hamburg, made the acquaintance of Klopstock and Schriider, and became engaged to Miss Alberti (d. 1837), whom he married the following year. He be came thoroughly well acquainted with all the members of the early romantic school in Ger many, in 1798-1800, while living in the univer sity town of Jena (the two Schlegels, Novalis. Fichte, Brentano, Gries), as well as with Goethe and Schiller, who were living at Weimar, a short walk from Jena. For 15 years, begin ning 1802, Tieck and his wife lived, with few interruptions, on the Ziebingen estate (near Frankfort on the Oder) of his intimate friend, Wilhelm von Burgsdorff (really the of the latter's uncle, Count Finkenstein). He traveled in Italy (1804-06) with his sister Sofie (1755-1833), who had married Bernhardi, and in various libraries on this journey he became acquainted with important manuscripts of me diaeval German poems ('Nibelungenlied,' Rother,' etc.). In 1819 he settled in Dresden, where he became (1825) manager of the Court Theatre, with the title of Hofrat. The last years of his life were spent chiefly at Berlin, to which city he was called (1840) by King Fred erick William IV of Prussia, who greatly ad mired his work, and who granted him an annual pension of 3,000 thalers. Together with Fried rich Schlegel (q.v.) and August Wilhelm Schlegel (q.v.), Ticck was the founder of the Romantic School in Germany, and while he was not the most profound or original writer of this movement, he certainly was its most versatile member. His connection with C. A. Nicolai did not last long, and Tieck's first independent venture in literature was the romance of wild adventure, (Williaxn Lovell' (Berlin 1795-96), an imitation of Restif de la Bretonne (q.v.). In 1797, in his (Volksmarchen,) appeared the satir ical comedy (Der gestiefelte Kater) ((Puss in Boots"), an outrageous and ingenious burlesque on the taste of the Berlin public in dramatic literature, which is not unlike some of the comedies of George Bernard Shaw. But Tieck's

romantic productions begin with his collabora tion with Wackenroder on the (Herzensergies sungen eines kunstliebenden Klosterbruders) (1797) and 'Franz Sternbalds Wandertmgen) (1799), romances of artistic journeys through Germany, which first opened the eyes of Ger mans to the beauties of the architecture and the spirit of the Middle Ages; also (Phantasien iiber die Kunst) (Hamburg 1799), in which the same views are expressed in the form of criti cism. His art demands are best embodied in a number of plays appearing from 1799 to 1804 ((Prinz Zerbino,) (Der blonde Eckbert,) (Geno veva,' (Melusine,) (Kaiser Octavianus)), in which Tieck consciously pursues a tendency new in literature, namely, the emnhasis on feel ing, longing and mood, and the attempt to bring about a different attitude toward art as well as toward the past (particularly the Middle Ages). Tieck had considerable literary scholarship, aside from his productive work, and he, was the editor of a number of old German poems and the translator of 'Don Quixote) and Shakespeare (in the latter task he was aided by August Wilhelm Schlegel and by his own daughter Dorothea, 1799-1841). In the crea tive field his best work is in three departments: fantastic plays, (Phantasus) (Berlin 1812-16); his poems (Dresden 1821-23) ; and his short stories (novellen), whose literary influence is by no means limited to their own &yr. The best of the latter are (Der Aufruhr in den Cevennen) (first published, Berlin 1826); (Der Gelehrte) (1828) ; (Der Hexensabbath' (1832); (Die Vogelscheuche) (1835). and (Des Lebens Ueberfluss) (1839). He was less successful in his long two-volume novel, (Vittoria Accorom bona) (Breslau 1840). For editions of his works consult (Movellen) (7 vols., Berlin 1823 28) ; (Gesammelte Novellen) (14 vols., Berlin 1835-42); (Ausgewahlte Werke' (Stuttgart 1886-£i8); (Ausgewahlte Werke,) with biogra phy, by Witkowski (Stuttgart 1903) ; (Tiecks Werke, Auswahl) (6 vols., Berlin 1908) ; Tieck's correspondence with various persons (Raumer, So!ger, Bernhardi) has also been published in separate editions. Translations of (Puss in Boots,) (Fair Eckbert,) and (The Elves) are given in (German Classics' (Vol. IV, New York 1913). Consult also Kiipke, Rudolf, (Ludwig Tieck) (2 vols., Leipzig 1855); Hoffmann, J. L., (Ludwig Tieck) (Niirnberg 1856) ; Kaiser, Oskar, (Der Dual ismus Tiecks als Dramatiker und Dramaturg) (Leipzig 1885); Fischer, L. H., (Aus Berlins Vergangenheit) (Berlin 1891) ; Danton, H. G., (The Nature Sense in the Poetry of Ludwig Tieck) (New York 1906) ; Marchard, L., (Les deux sources du Sternbald) (in Revue ger manique, Vol. II, p. 522) ; Hemmer, H., (Die Anfange Ludwig Tiecks' (Strasshurg 1908).