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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 26

Thrace
Thrace, Thris, Anciently A Part Of The Balkan Peninsula, Whose Territory Was Some What Indefinite, But Which Comprised The Region North Of Macedonia, Including Scythia. Its Territory Was Understood Differently At Differ Ent Times By The Ancients, But Was Later Limited To The Country Between The Northern Boundary Of Macedonia ...

Thread
Thread. The Filaments Of Fibrous Sub Stances Spun Out For Weaving Are In A General Sense Called Threads, The Specific Name Of Such Filaments Being Yarn. Thread In A Specific Sense Consists Of Two Or More Filaments Of Yarn Twisted Together For Greater Strength; When The Filaments Do Not Exceed ...

Three Musketeers
Three Musketeers, The. If A Note Were Taken In Europe And America As To The Best Historical Romance Ever Penned There Can He Little Doubt That It Would Favor 'the Three Musketeers' ('les Trois Mousquetaires)) Of Alexandre Dumas. Published In 1844, Just Three Decades After (waverley,' This Work Ex Emplified ...

Thremmatology
Thremmatology. A Term Proposed By Ray Lancaster (from The Greek Thremma, A Nursling) To Cover The Principles And Practices Connected With The Improvement Of Domesti Cated Animals And Plants. It Is Distinct From Evolution In General In That Its Ultimate Purpose Is Utilitarian. The Breeder Is Interested In Definite Results, ...

Thrush
Thrush, A Bird Of The Passerine Family Turdidce, A Family Which Contains Some Of The Most Familiar And Attractive Birds, And Most Of The Best Songsters Of The World. They Are Characteristically But Not Entirely Migratory. A Few Are Only Five Or Six Inches In Length, But The American Robin ...

Thrush_2
Thrush, A Form Of Parasitic Stomatitis, Due To The Presence In The Mouth Of The Thrush-fungus, White-moutte Or Sprue. (see Mourn). The Disease Usually Occurs In In Fants, But May Appear Later In Life, Even In Old Age, In Association With Some Severe Acute Ill Ness Or Some Wasting Disease, ...

Thucydides
Thucydides, Thii-sid'i-dez, Greek His Torian: B. Attica, About 460 A.c.; D. About 400 A.c. His Father's Name Was Olorus, His Moth Er's Hegesipyle. He Possessed Gold Mines In Thrace Opposite The Island Of Thasos, And Was In Consequence One Of The Richest And Most In Fluential Men In Thrace. In ...

Thunderbolt
Thunderbolt, The, A Comedy In Four Acts, By Sir Arthur Wing Pinero, Represents The Mature Work Of One Of The Most Skilful Of Con Temporary English Dramatists. In It He Dis Cards Most Of The Theatrical Conventions Which Constitute The Common Stock In Trade Of The Playwright's Craft And Which ...

Thurman
Thurman, Ther'man, Allen Granbery, American Lawyer And Politician: B. Lynchburg, Va., 13 Nov. 1813; D. Columbus, Ohio, 12 Dec. 1895. He Was Brought, In Childhood, To Chilli Cothe, Ohio, And There Received An Academic Education. After Teaching For A Time He Studied Law In The Office Of His Uncle, William ...

Thurston
Thurston, Robert Henry, American Engineer And Educator: B. Providence, R. I., 25 Oct. 1839; D. Ithaca, N. Y., 25 Oct. 1903. He Was Graduated From Brown University In 1859, And Received His Mechanical Training In His Father's Engine-building Shops. In 1861 He Joined The Engineer Corps Of The Navy, Served ...

Thwing
Thwing, Twing, Charles Franklin, American College President: B. New Sharon, Me., 9 Nov. 1853. He Was Graduated At Har Vard In 1876, And At Andover Theological Seminary In 1879; Received The Honorary De Gees Of S.t.d., From Chicago Theological Seminary In 1889, Ll.d., From Marietta College In 1894, From Illinois ...

Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Gland, A Structure Having No Outlet Or Duct, And Classified With The Spleen, Thymus Gland And Suprarenal Capsules Under The General Name Of Ductless Glands. In Man The Thyroid Gland Is Situated At The Upper Part Of The Trachea Or Windpipe And Consists Of Two Halves Or Lobes, Placed ...

Tiahuanaco
Tiahuanaco, Te-i-wi-nalai, Bolivia, The Ruins Of A Prehistoric City, Near The South Shore Of Lake Titicaca, In Lat. 16° 42' S., Long. 68° 42' W., About 40 Miles West Of La Paz City. The Ruins Stand On An Eminence 12,930 Feet Above Sea-level, Which, From The Water Marks Around It, ...

Tibet
Tibet, Tib'et Or Ti-bet, Or Thibet, A Country Of Central Asia, Under Chinese Suze Rainty, Lying Between Latitude 28° And 36° N., And Between Long. 79° And 103° E. It Is Hounded On The North By East (chinese) Tur Kestan, On The East By China Proper, On The South By ...

Ticks And Mites
Ticks And Mites, Small Arthropods Usually Considered To Be An Order (acarida) Of The Class Arachnida (q.v.). They Have The Regions Of The Body The Most Completely Coa Lesced Of Any Articulated Animals, For Not Only Are The Head And Thorax More Or Less United To Form A Cephalothorax, But ...

Ticonderoga
Ticonderoga, Ti-lcón-di-th'ga, N. Y., Village, Essex County, On The Stream Which Is The Outlet Of Lake George, And On The Delaware And Hudson And The Rutland Railroads, About 95 Miles North By East Of Albany, And A Short Distance From Lakes And George. In The Vicinity Are Rich Deposits Of ...

Tides 1
Tides. 1. Introductory.— Persons Living Along The Seashore Are Familiar With A Semi Daily Rising And Falling Of The Waters, Which, Although Generally Amounting To Only A Few Feet, Often Suffices To Cover And Bare By Turns Wide Stretches Of The Sea-shore. Without Tide Tables, Or Any Knowledge Of The ...

Tidewater
Tidewater, Arms Of The Sea, Bays, Creeks And Rivers Where The Tide Ebbs And Flows Are Public, And All Persons May Use The Same For The Purpose Of Navigation And Fishing, Un Less Restrained By Law; In Such Waters The Tide Must Actually Ebb And Flow. It Is The Rise ...

Tieck
Tieck, Johann Ludwig, German Drama Tist And Novelist Of The Romantic School, Known Also Under The Pseudonyms, Peter Lebreght And Gomm Farber: B. Berlin, 31 May 1773; D. Berlin, 28 April 1853. He Was Of Lowly Origin, His Father Being A Poor Ropemaker. From 1782 To 1792 He Attended The ...

Tientsin
Tientsin, China, A City And Treaty Port In The Province Of Chili, Situated On The Peiho River 70 Miles By Water From Its Mouth In The Dull Of Pechili. The Old City Is A Square Surrounded By Walls And Ditches And Traversed By Broad, Straight Streets. Two Miles To The ...

Tierra Del Fuego
Tierra Del Fuego, Te-eiri Del Fwa' Go, An Archipelago At The Extreme South Of South America, Separated From The Mainland By The Strait Of Magellan Which Forms Its Boundary On The North And Northwest, While The Atlantic Ocean Bounds It On The East And The Pacific Ocean On The Southwest; ...

Tiffany
Tiffany, Louis Comfort, American Artist And Decorator ,• B. New York City, 18 Feb. 1848. In Early Life He Evinced A Strong Inclina Tion Toward The Fine Arts; Hence His Parents Wisely Gratified His Tastes And Educated Him For An Artist. He First Studied With George Inness And Samuel Coleman ...

Tiffin
Tiffin, Ohio, City, County-seat Of Seneca County, On The Sandusky River And On The Baltimore And Ohio, The Pennsylvania And The Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago And Saint Louis Railroads, About 80 Miles North By West Of Columbus, The State Capital And 40 Miles South East Of Toledo. It Was Settled In ...

Tiger
Tiger, The Largest And Most Admirable Of The Cats (felis Tigris). In Size And Power It Surpasses The Lion, As It Does In Beauty, And Ex Presses The Highest Type Of Feline Structure. (see Felidm). The Ground Color Of The Body Is A Bright Tawny Yellow, Bearing Black Stripes Running ...

Tilden
Tilden, Samuel Jones, American Law Yer And Statesman: B. New Lebanon, N. Y., 9 Feb. 1814; D. Greystone On The Hudson, Near Yonkers, N. Y., 4 Aug. 1886. He Was Educated At Yale And At New York University, Being Graduated From The Latter In 1837. He Then Studied Law And ...

Tilefish
Tilefish, A Large Oceanic Fish (lophala Tilus Chameleonticeps), Allied To The Cods, And Belonging To The Family Malacanthida, Repre Sented By The Blanqtiilla And Other Well-known Food-fishes Of The Pacific Coast. It Weighs From 10 To 40 Pounds And Is Big-headed And Brilliantly Colored, With A Curious Triangular Fatty Protuberance ...

Tiles
Tiles Are Stone, Metal Or Composition Slabs For Use In Covering A Roof To Keep Out The Water. Since The Most Common Material Is Baked Clay, And This Same Clay Is Used To Form Drain Pipe, The Word Tile Has Been Extended In Meaning To Cover Clay Pipes Termed Drain-tile. ...

Till Eulenspiegel
Till Eulenspiegel. In 'till Eulen Spiegep Friedrich Lienhard Exemplifies His Fa Vorite Method Of Treating, With Manifest Applica Tion To His Own Time, An Old Genuinely German Subject Conceived In A Way That Is No Less Novel Than Poetic. The Work Is In Three Parts. The First. (eulenspiegels Ausfahre (ceulenspiegel's ...

Tillman
Tillman, Benjamin Ryan, American Legislator: B. Edgefield County, S. C., 11 Aug. 1847; D. Washington, D. C., 3 July 1918. He Received His Education At Bethany Academy, Entered The Confederate Army On The Outbreak Of The Civil War, But Was Obliged To Forego Active Service Owing To A Severe Illness. ...

Tillotson
Tillotson, Til'ot-son, John, English Prelate, Archbishop Of Canterbury: B. Sowerby, Yorkshire, October 1630; D. 22 Nov. 1694. His Father, A Strict Calvinist, Brought Up His Son In The Same Principles. He Was Graduated At Cam Bridge And Elected A Fellow Of Clare Hall In 1651. In 1666 Appeared His 'rule ...

Timby
Timby, Theodore Ruggles, American In Ventor: B. Dover, Dutchess County, N. Y., 5 April 1822; D. Brooklyn, N. Y., 1909. He °was An Inventor From Childhood," Says Parton, And At 16 Invented The Floating Dry Dock. Among His Other Inventions Are Those Of Floating Bat Teries Of Iron And Steel ...

Time
Time, That Dimension Of The World Which We Express In Terms Of Before And After. Our Experience Of Time Is In General Analogous With Our Experiences Of Space (q.v.), But It Has Cer Tain Important Differences From The Latter. These Reside Primarily In The Fact That Whereas It Is Customary ...

Timgad
Timgad, Algeria, The Ancient Roman City Thamugadi, In The Department Of Constantine, Near Lamb6ze, About 25 Miles Southeast Of Batna On The Philippeville-biskra Railroad, Is Approached Through A Valley Bounded By The Aures Mountains And Stands On The Northern Fringe Of The African Desert. It Was A Forti Fied Frontier ...

Timon Of Athens
Timon Of Athens. Very Little Has Yet Been Discovered Concerning Of Athens.' There Is No Record Of Any Early Performance Or Any Edition Other Than The Strangely Imperfect One In The Folio Of 1623. On The Evidence Of Style The Play Is Dated About 1607 And Thus Referred To The ...

Timor
Timor, Te-mar', An Island Of The Malay Archipelago, The Most Eastern And Largest Of The Lesser Sunda Islands, 700 Miles Southeast Of Borneo And 500 Miles West By South Of Papua Or New Guinea; Length, 300 Miles; Width, 60 Miles; Area, 12,450 Square Miles. Coasts Are Steep And Generally Difficult ...

Timothy
Timothy, A Disciple Of Saint Paul: B. In Lycaonia, Asia Minor, Probably At Lystra, Of A Gentile Fattier And Jewish Mother. His Father's Name Is Unknown; His Mother's Was Eunice, His Grandmother's Lois. By His Mother And Grandmother He Was Early Made Familiar With The Old Testament Scriptures, And It ...

Timothy And Titus
Timothy And Titus, Epistles To. Pastoral Epistles.—the Two Letters Which Pur Port To Have Been Written By The Apostle Paul To His Young Friend And Assistant Timothy And The Letter Which In The Same Way Purports To Have Been Written To His Fellow-worker Titus Are Commonly Called From The Nature ...

Timur Beg Timur
Timur, (timur Beg, Timur Leng, Tamerlane, The Latter A Corrup Tion Of Timur Leng,"timur The Lame"), Mon Gol Conqueror : B. Kesh, Near Samarcand, About 1336; D. Otrar, 17 Feb. 1405. He Was A Descend Ant Of Genghis Khan And Became Chief Of His Tribe In 1370, Having Previously Reigned ...

Tin Plate
Tin Plate, Manufacture Of. The Manu Facture Of Tin Plate Was Probably Begun In Bohemia, About The Beginning Of The 16th Cen Tury, And Was First Attempted In England About 1670. The Crude Methods Consisted Of The Simple Expedient Of Dipping The Plates Of Iron Into A Vat Of Molten ...

Tinamou
Tinamou, A South American Game-bird, The Crypturi, Called °partridge* By Colonists Because Of Its Superficial Likeness To Those Birds, But Structurally Occupying A Dis Tinct Place, The Determination Of Which Has Greatly Puzzled Ornithologists. The View Now Prevails That They Are A Every Distinct Group Of Birds, Which Though Not ...

Tintern Abbey
Tintern Abbey,
Tintoretto
Tintoretto, Jacopo Ro Busti, Son Of A Dyer (italian, Tintore), Whence His Usual Surname, Italian Painter: B. Venice, 16 Sept. 1518; D. There, 31 May 1594. He Was A Pupil Of Titian, But Was Soon Dismissed By His Master, Perhaps Through Fear Of Rivalry. He Thereupon Worked Without A Master, ...

Tion
Tion. The Orientation Of The Sun-dial After It Is Made Is A Necessity Of The First Importance If Satisfaction Is Desired. This Process Is Carried Out Usually At Night With The Aid Of Two Plumb-lines One North And The Other South Of The Position In Which The Dial Is To ...

Tischendorf
Tischendorf, Konstan Tin Von, German Biblical Critic: B. Lengenfeld, Saxony, 18 Jan. 1815; D. Leipzig, 7 Dec. 1874. He Was Educated At Leipzig, Where He Qualified As A Lecturer In 1840. In The Latter Year He Went To Paris And Deciphered The 'codex Ephrami> And Soon Afterward He Began To ...

Tithes
Tithes, Taxes, Either Voluntary Or Com Pulsory, Consisting Of One-tenth Of The Income Taxed. Usually Tithes Were One-tenth Of The Annual Profit Of The Land And Were Paid For Purposes Of Church Support. The Custom Is Of Extreme Antiquity. In Genesis Xiv, 20, Abra Ham Allows A Tenth Of The ...

Titian
Titian (tiztaxo Vecelli ) , The Greatest Painter Of The Venetian School And One Of The World's Greatest Painters: B. Pieve In Cadore, A District In The Venetian Or Carnic 'alps, 1477; D. Venice, 27 Aug. 1576. He Was The Son Of Gregorio Di Conte Vecelli, A Descendant Of An ...

Titlark
Titlark, A Small Lark-like Bird Of The Family Motacillide, Many Species Of Which In Habit Most Parts Of The World In Every Variety Of Region, Some Being Migratory, Others Per Manent Residents. The Nest Is Made Upon The Ground, Or Dry Grass And Stalks, Lined With Finer Plants And Hair, ...

Title Insurance
Title Insurance Is Effected In Coun Tries Having Public Offices For The Record Of Titles To Real Estate Through The Agency Of Title Guaranty Companies. This Business Has As Sumed Importance In The United States Where The System Is Most Fully Developed. In This Country Law Requires All Transfers Of ...

Title Registration
Title Registration, A System Of Public Records Under Which Titles To Real Prop Erty Are Recorded In Public Offices For The Pur Pose Of Expediting The Process Of Transfer And Of Giving Legal Notice To Claims Of Ownership To Lands So Entered. In England The Registra Tion Of Titles Is ...

Titles
Titles, Words Or Phrases Bestowed On In Dividuals As A Mark Of Distinction, Rank Or Dignity, And In Some Cases Implying Office Or Vocation. Titles May Be Official, Honorary, Civil, Military, Temporal Or Ecclesiastical. The Use Of Titles Is As Old As Civilization And Seems To Have Arisen From Titles ...

Titmouse
Titmouse, One Of The Diminutive Birds Of The Subfamily Parincr, Family Parities, Which Are Among The Most Interesting Of Passerine Birds. There Are More Than 75 Known Species, Ranging Widely Over Most Parts Of The World Except Australia, But Most Abundant In The Temperate And Colder Regions Of The Northern ...

Titus Andronicus
Titus Andronicus. Several Plays Of The Shakespeare Canon Preserve A Mystery Due To Almost Total Absence Of External Evidence; In The Case Of
Titusville
Titusville, Pa., City In Crawford County, On Oil Creek And On The Pennsylvania And The New York Central Railroads, 100 Miles North Of Pittsburgh And 50 Miles Southeast Of Erie, Pa. The City Is On A Plain Which Slopes Slightly Toward The South And East. The Natu Ral Drainage Is ...

Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala, Tlas-lcola, Or Tlascala, Mexico, The Smallest State In The Republic, Situ Ated Between The States Of Puebla, Hidalgo And Mexico. Area, 1,534 Square Miles. The Capital, Tlaxcala, Located About 60 Miles East Of Mexico City, Was In Ancient Time A Large City, But Its 1919 Population Is Only 2,800. ...

To A Skylark
To A Skylark. Shelley's Perhaps The Most Famous Of English Lyrics, Was Written At Leghorn, Italy, And Published With (prometheus Unbound) In 1820. It Is Com Posed Of 21 Five-line Stanzas, Each Of Which Ends With A Long Line That Represents The Brief Pause Of The Bird On The Wing ...

Toad
Toad, An Amphibian Of The Anourous Family Bufonidce Or Some Related Family In The Series Arcifera, In Allusion To The Structure Of The Shoulder Girdle. The Bufonida, Present The Following Distinctive Features: The Tongue Is Well Developed, Fixed To The Front Of The Mouth, And Has The Hind End Free. ...

Tobacco
Tobacco, The Common Name Applied (1) To Plants Of The Genus Nicotiana, Of Which There Are A Large Number Of Species, And (2) To The Dried Leaves Of These Plants Prepared In Various Ways For Smoking, Chewing Or Snuffing. Originating In America, The Use Of Tobacco Has Been Extended Into ...

Tocqueville
Tocqueville, (fr. Tilk-vel), Alexis Charles Henri Clerel De, French States Man And Writer: B. Verneuil, 29 July 1805; D. Cannes, 16 April 1859. He Was Originally Destined For The Military Profession, But Ex Changed It For That Of Law. In 1827 He Was Ap Pointed An Assistant Magistrate At Versailles. ...

Todds Tavern
Todd's Tavern, Engagements At The Virg.inia Campaign Of 1864 Began On 4 May By The Advance Of The Army Of The Poto Mac Across The Rapidan, The Cavalry Divisions Of Generals Gregg And J. H. Wilson Leading. Wilson Crossed The Rapidan At Germania Ford, And Marched Rapidly By Wilderness Tavern ...

Token Money
Token Money, A Name In Numismatics Applied To Pieces Of Money Current Only By Sufferance And Not Coined By The Authority Of The State Or Govenunent. In England In The 16th Century The National Coinage Was So Un Satisfactory And Inconvenient That Large Num Bers Of Private Traders And Merchants ...

Tokio
Tokio, To'ice-6, Or Tokyo, The Capital Of Japan, Situated At The Head Of The Land-locked Bay Of Tokio, On The East Coast Of Central Hondo, And At The Mouth Of The Sumida Gawa. Besides The Latter River, Which Divides The City Into Two Unequal Parts, Tokio Is Intersected By A ...

Toledo
Toledo, Ohio, City, County-seat Of Lucas County, On The Maumee River, Near Its Mouth; Lat. 41 30' N., Long. 83° 32' W. The City Is 587 Feet Above Sea-level. It Is 96 Miles West Of Cleveland, 124 Miles North Of Columbus And 234 Miles East Of Chicago. The Northern Corpora ...

Toledo Newsboys Associa Tion
Toledo Newsboys' Associa Tion, 'the, Was Organized 1892, With Its Founder, John E. Gunckel (q.v.), As President. Mr. Gunckel Remained President Of The Asso Ciation Until His Death In 1915. Through His Untiring Efforts The Association Had A Marvelous Growth And Was The Means Of Reclaiming The Heretofore Neglected Boy ...

Toledo War
Toledo War, The, A Name Popularly Given To The Contest Over The Division Line Be Tween Michigan On The North And Indiana And Ohio On The South. It Arose Out Of An Error In The Location Of The Southern Point Of Lake Michigan. In 1805 The Territory Of Michigan Was ...

Toleration
Toleration, A Word Meaning In Its General Sense Forebearance Without Approval, As When A State Has An Established Church, But Other Churches Are Tolerated — That Is, Their Members Are Permitted To Worship In Their Own Way Without Interference On The Part Of The State. In This Meaning Toleration Is ...

Toluene
Toluene, Methyl Benzene, Caich2, Is An Aromatic Hydrocarbon Present In American Petroleum, In Wood-tar And In Coal-tar. Upon Distillation Coal-tar Yields A Fraction Known As Light Oil, Boiling At 100°-120° C. The Toluene Of Commerce Has Been Obtained From This Frac Tion. Toluene Has Also Been Prepared (1) By The ...

Tom Jones
Tom Jones. 'the History Of Tom Jones, A Foundling,' A Novel By Henry Fielding, Was Published 28 Feb. 1749— A Red-letter Day In The Calendar Of English Fiction, For This Work In The Opinion Of Many Stands At The Head Of All Novels Ever Written In Our Lan Guage. It ...

Tomato
Tomato, A Perennial Herb (lycopersicon Lycopersicon) Of The Family Solanacece. It Is A Native Of Western South America, Whence It Was Introduced Into Cultivation In Europe Dur Ing The 16th Century. At First The Wrinkled Fruits Were Regarded With Suspicion Or Dis Favor, And Were More Popular As Garden Orna ...

Tomb
Tomb, A Vault, Cavity, Niche, Excavation Or Chamber To Receive The Dead Body Of A Human Being; Also The Monument To His Memory, Or The Combined Structure That Answers Both Of These Purposes. Among Eastern Peo Ples It Early Became The Practice To Place The Remains Of The Dead In ...

Tomsk
Tomsk, Asia, In Western Siberia, (1) Capital Of The Government Of Its Own Name, On The Tom (q.v.). It Is The Seat Of A Governor And Of A Bishop And Of The Educational District Of West Siberia. It Has 20 Russian Churches, Monastery, Convent, Synagogue, Mosque, Uni Versity With Three ...

Tongue
Tongue, The Principal Organ Of The Sense Of Taste And An Essential Part Of The Ap Paratus Of Speech In Human Beings. The Name Tongue Is Also Given To Various Structures In Invertebrates, As The Proboscis Of A Lepidopter Or The Odontophore Of A Shellfish. In Man The Tongue Is ...

Tonking Tonkin
Tonkin, Tonking, Or Tongking, French Indo-china, A Territory Under French Protection, Bounded On The North By China, On The East By The Gulf Of Tonkin, On The South By Anam And On The West By Laos. Area, 46,400 Square Miles. It Is Divided Into 14 Provinces And Includes About 8,000 ...

Tonnage
Tonnage, The Carrying Capacity Of A Ship. As This Capacity Is Variously Measured The Word Has Several Special Meanings. As It Comes From The Shipyard The Ship's Capacity Is Rated As "dead Weight Tonnage." As It Is Measured By Maritime Surveyors And Registered As Of So Many Tons, Its Capacity ...

Tontine
Tontine, Ton-ten', A Form Of Annuity Or Financial Assurance In Which Gain Accrues From Survivorship. The Word Is Derived From The Name Of Lorenzo Tonti, A Neapolitan Who Set Tled In Paris In The Time Of Cardinal Mazarin And Who Invented This Style Of Life Annuity. Tonti Proposed The System ...

Toomrs
Toomrs, Robert, American Lawyer And Statesman: B. Wilkes County, Ga., 2 July 1810; D. Washington, Ga., 15 Dec. 1885. He Was The Son Of A Georgia Planter, Attended For One Year Franklin College (now The University Of Georgia) And Was Graduated At Union Col Lege, Schenectady, N. Y., In 1828. ...

Topaz
Topaz, A Mineral Having The Composition Of An Aluminum Fluo-silicate. It Is Not The Topaz Of Pliny And Other Early Writers Which Was Chrysolite (q.v.), The Names Having Been Interchanged. It Generally Crystallizes In Or Thorhombic Prisms, Colorless, White, Yellow, Or Occasionally Pale Green Or Blue. Trans Parent Topaz, In ...

Tope
Tope, A Buddhist Monument Intended For The Preservation Of Relics. The Oldest Monu Ments Of This Kind Are Spherical Or Elliptical Cupolas, Resting On A Circular Or Rectilinear Base, With An Umbrella-shaped Roof, And Sometimes With A Series Of Roofs Of This Form Which De Velop Into A Spire, Pyramid ...

Topeka
Topeka, Kan., City And County-seat Of Shawnee County, Capital Of The State And The Third Largest City In The State, On Both Banks Of The Kansas River, On The Atchison Topeka And Santa Fe, The Chicago, Rock Island And Pacific, The Union Pacific And The Missouri Pacific, 67 Miles West ...