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Timor

miles, island and portuguese

TIMOR, te-mar', an island of the Malay Archipelago, the most eastern and largest of the Lesser Sunda Islands, 700 miles southeast of Borneo and 500 miles west by south of Papua or New Guinea; length, 300 miles; width, 60 miles; area, 12,450 square miles. Coasts are steep and generally difficult of access on ac count of coral reefs; the island is traversed by a mountain chain everywhere giving evidence of volcanic origin; one peak, Mount Atlas, is over 12,000 feet; the interior is very little known. The vegetation is less luxuriant and less varied than in the other islands of the East Indies. The coast lands are cultivated to some extent, the northern part of the island being more favorable to agriculture than the south ern. Coffee. rice, sugar and cocoanuts are grown, but mostly for domestic use; some coffee is exported, also sandalwood, wax, trepang and tortoise shell. Horses, ponies and cattle are raised and a few exported. There is consider

able mineral wealth, but it has not been de veloped. The people are mainly Papuan, with Malayan, Polynesian and Negrito mixture, with a few Chinese, who control the trade. Many of the people are savage, being classed as °head hunters" The island politically is divided be tween Portugal and Holland, the northern part (7,350 square miles) being Portuguese, the southern part (5,120 square miles), Dutch. This division was first made by treaty in 1859, and the boundaries and relationship of the two countries more exactly defined by another treaty in 1893. In 1908 another treaty was ratified and some territory exchanged between these governments. The Dutch capital is Kupang (9,000 pop.), the Portuguese DiIli (3,000 pop.). The Portuguese population of the island (1915) was 378,000; the Dutch between 200,000 and 300,000; but only a few hundred of these are Europeans.